Man Made Disaster Class 8 Social Science Revision Notes
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Man Made Disaster in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Man Made Disaster Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Social Science Man Made Disaster Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
MAN MADE DISASTER
• Fire : Fire is an event of something burning and is often destructive taking up the toll of life and property.
• Accident : Accident is an event in which vehicles strike each other and cause damage to people and themselves.
• Terrorist Attack : The deliberate vicious acts of mass murder against people by carrying out suicide attacks, shooting massacres bombings etc., are called terrorist attacks.
• Epidemic : An epidemic is defined as the occurrence of an illness or other health related event that is unusually large and unexpected.
• Terrorism : Deliberate vicious acts of mass murder of the innocent people by carrying out suicide attacks, shooting massacres and bombings are termed as terrorism.
• Outbreak of an Epidemic : Occurrence of cases of a particular disease in excess of the expected is termed as outbreak of an epidemic.
• Besides natural disasters there are several other disasters which are made/create. Ex. rail, road or air accidents are man-made disasters.
• The threat of serious disasters looms large from the possible use of distructive weapons like nuclear bombs and atom bomb.
— These weapons are commonly called Weapons of mass Destruction (WMD).
— They lead to the breakdown and collapse of social, political and economic systems sustaining communities.
— Agriculture and food production are major casualties of these disasters.
• Man-made disasters cost the most in terms of human suffering, loss of life and long term damage to a country's economy and productiveness of the people. Now we discuss various man-made disaster:
WMD (Weapons of Mass distruction)
• Weapons of Mass Destruction are broadly classified into three categories. They are nuclear, biological and chemical.
Fire is an event of something burning and is often distraction taking up a toll of life and property.
Observation about the Extent of Fires :
There are several natural and man-made disasters :
Natural : Earthquakes, landslides, floods and cyclones.
Man-made : Fires, chemical, biological, industrial and nuclear disasters.
• Their toll is very much.
• More people die in fires than in cyclones, earthquakes, floods and all other natural disasters combined.
Causes of Fires :
There are numerous causes of fires as enumerated below :
1. Heating sources often cause fire. Ex. Space heaters, electric heaters and fireplaces.
2. Cooking accidents cause home fires and cause us a lot of concern. Ex. (a) unattended cooking (b) mechanical failure of the stove (c) any other cooking equipment.
3. (a) Over loaded electrical wiring cause fire. (b) Overheating of electrical appliances, poor wiring connections, use of unauthorized appliances and multi point adaptors are common which cause fire.
4. Accumulated rubbish and Waste materials easily contribute to the spread of fire.
5. Combustible Materials like packing materials, glues, solvents, flammable liquids or gases stored in work place are extremely dangerous.
6. Hazardous materials like paints, solvents, adhesive, chemicals and gas cylinders generally prove a source of ignition.
7. Arson and Deliberate Fire Setting is also a cause.
8. Smoking is also a major cause of fuel.
9. Striking of electrical wires with each other also cause fuel.
10. Inapt handling of inflammables causes havoc.
Safety Measures for Fire Prevention in Home :
1. Remember basic fuel safety rules and keep your evacuation route in mind.
2. Don't keep highly flammable liquids in the house.
3. Install fire extinguisher in your house and learn to use it.
4. Teach everyone in the house to use fire extinguisher.
5. Make sure to shut off all electrical and gas appliances when going out of the house.
6. Don't plug several devices into one socket.
7. Keep away matches from children and do not allow anyone to smoke inside the house.
8. Keep the routes clear from cupboards or any furniture.
9. Try to know the cause of the fire and take necessary actions.
10. In the event of a fire make telephonic call to the fuel department, provide them with your address and the nature and location of the fuel.
Other Measures :
1. In the corridors filled with smoke, crawl on all fours (two feet and two arms) or on your bally as there is less effect of smoke on or near the floor.
2. Do not use water to extinguish fire if it has been caused by electrical defect use fire extinguishers and sand buckets.
ROAD, RAIL AND AIR TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
Road Accidents :
• Road network has increased manifold during the recent days.
• With increase in road network road accidents have seen a sharp rise.
• The main causes of road accidents are :
(1) Violation of traffic regulations,
(3) drunk driving and
(4) poor maintenance of the vehicle and the roads.
A of these reasons add to rise in accidents and road fatalities.
Safety Measures :
1. One must drive when he is competent enough;
2. We should follow Lane Driving for our own safety;
3. Familiarity with Road Markings;
4. Knowledge of Road Signs and their following;
5. Carefulness while driving in the rainy season, driving up a hill and during night driving;
6. No sudden acceleration and deceleration;
7. Speed of the vehicle recommended by the manufacturer;
8. Stoppage of red light;
9. Precaution while crossing roundabout.
10. Looking on either sides of the road before crossing.
11. No overtaking unnecessarily.
12. Avoidance of a head on collision; at all costs.
13. Wearing of helmets.
14. In case a mishap, stay calm and do your best.
15. Control the vehicle until it reaches to a standstill.
16. If the vehicle gets submerged by water-climb out through an open window.
17. In case of fIre, try to get out as early as possible and do not worry about the baggage as life is precious.
Factors Governing the Safety of Passengers in an Aircraft :
Many factors govern the safety of passengers in an aircraft. They are :
(i) Technical problems,
(iii) Landing and take off conditions,
(iv) The environment : an airline operates in (mountainous terrain or frequent storms),
(v) Factors like airport security in cases of hijackings, bombing attempts etc.
(vii) Terrorist taking control of the aircraft,
Safety Measures to be Adopted while Travelling in an Aircraft :
Safety Measures : On board the aircraft there are some things you have to remember :
(i) Paying attention to the flight crew safety demonstration;
(ii) Carefully reading safety briefIng card;
(iii) Knowledge about the nearest emergency exist and knowledge to open it in case of emergency;
(iv) Always keeping seatbelt fastened when in seat.
Points to Remember while Involved in Air Accident
(i) Stay calm.
(ii) Listen to the crew members and do what they say. The cabin crew's most important job is to help you leave safely.
(iii) Before you try to open any emergency exit yourself, look outside the window. If you see a fIre outside the door, do not open : Try to use your alternate escape route.
(iv) Try to stay down if there's smoke in the cabin. Follow the track of emergency lights embedded in the floor; they lead to an exit.
(v) Put cloth over your nose and mouth.
The damages of the derailment of Bangalore Express on 21 December 2002.
(i) Rail accident occurred on Dec. 21, 2002.
(ii) Bogies of the derailed Bangalore Express were lying on the tracks near Pendakal station, 250 km south of Hyderabad.
(iii) 20 persons were killed and 80 injured, 24 of them seriously.
Safety Measures while on Rail Travel :
(i) A railway crossing pay attention to the signal and the swing barrier. Do not get underneath and try to get across.
(ii) At unmanned crossing, get down the vehicle and look at either sides of the track before crossing.
(iii) No stoppage of the train on a bridge or tunnel where evacuation is not possible.
(iv) No taking of flammable material while travelling.
(v) No standing and learning out of the door; No smoking in the train.
(vi) No pulling of emergency cord unnecessarily.
(vii) Keeping valuables within the least.
Indian Roads are not Safe :
Indian roads are not safe because of the following reasons :
(i) India has one of the highest accident rates in the world.
(ii) More than 3,00,000 accidents occur every year.
(iii) Nearly 60,000 people die of accidents.
(iv) Human factors is responsible for a majority of accidents.
(v) In India, vehicle users are responsible, in 70% of the road accidents.
(vi) Pedestrians contribute 4.1% of the road accidents.
(vii) Poor condition of the roads accounts for about 0.4% of the accidents.
(viii) Nearly 80 % of the accidents occur due to bad driving habits and human error.
Do's and Don'ts while driving on the Roads
(1) Be a licenced driver and keep the licence with yourself while driving.
(2) Check the tyre pressure, radiator water, brake oil arid fuel every day.
(3) Replace worn out tyres because atleast 10 % of the road accidents occur due to faulty tyres.
(4) Keep headlamps and tail lights always in order.
(5) Strictly follow road traffic signs.
(6) Keep to your lane, do not overtake.
(7) Always dip your beam while you spot an oncoming vehicle. If you do not dip, the driver on the opposite side can get dazzled, and cause accident.
(8) Drivers on two wheeler scooter must, use helmets for the safety.
(9) Use seat belt, provided in your car.
(10) Get the vehicle serviced according to the schedule.
(11) Control impatience, anger and intoxication before start driving for the safety of your life as well as that of others.
(12) Use zebra crossing to across the road.
(13) Cooperate with enforcing authorities, to make traffic rules and regulations.
(14) Consideration for other road users, is a very important determinant of our behaviour on road. "Do unto others as you would have them unto you", will ensure safety not just to you, but also to other, on the road.
B. DON'TS :
(1) Dont' jump lanes.
(2) Don't weave in and out of traffic in congested areas.
(3) Don't accelerate or deaccelerate suddenly.
(4) Maintain a safe distance from the vehicles in front.
(5) Dont' use harsh horns:
(6) Use the horn, only when necessary.
(7) Dont' use curtains, dark tinted glasses and, stickers on windscreens and windows, as they hinder visibility.
(8) Don't exceed the speed limits prescribed for your type of vehicle.
Safety of Both Vehicle Users and the Pedestrian :
We can ensure safety of both vehicle users and pedestrian if we take following precautions :
• Awareness and adherence to rules and regulations of the traffic.
• Road users to cooperate with rules and regulations enforcing authorities.
• Road users and pedestrians to be involved in making traffic rules.
• They should ensures safety on roads.
• 'Do into other as you would have then mto you'.
• Recent Terrorist Attack :
Terrorist Attack on World Trade Centre
In the recent memory are the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York and the Pentagon in Washington on 11 September, 2001. They killed thousands of people.
Mumbai Attacks :
The financial capital of India Mumbai has been under the terrorist target very frequently and the city is always on high alert. Serial blasts of 1993 took the lives of many innocent people. Numerous other bomb blasts have occurred in this city in particular. Hence, it is important to pay attention to this problem. In the recent times the city has a chronology of such events.
Bomb Blasts in Zaweri Bazaar and Gateway of India
On 25 August, 2003 powerful bomb blasts at two crowded areas of the city, near Zaweri bazaar and the Gateway of India, killed at least 45 people and injured over 150. This was the sixth in a series of blasts that o'ceurred in Mumbai since December, 2002.
Mulund Railway Station on March 13, 2003
On March 13,2003 a powerful bomb blast shatters a bogie of a local train at Mulund railway station in the peak hours killing 11 people and injuring.more than 65.
Gateway of India on August 25, 2003
A car damaged in a bomb blast lies next to the Gateway of India, background, in Mumbai, India, Monday, August 25, 2003. The bombings killed at least 40 people and injured at least 150, 40 of them critically wounded.
Placing of Explosive Devices and their working :
The explosive devices in many of the cases are placed in the most unexpected place such as road, public spaces and public transport. Car bombs are on the increase. Bombs are simply placed inside the car and this blows off as per the time set.
• In the Event of Bomb Scare :
(i) In case you come across any package and have doubt, be on your guard and don't touch anything.
(ii) Beware of the objects that are left on their own in public areas-suitcases, boxes, packages etc.
(iii) Do not approach the object yourself and don't let other people do so.
(iv) Inform the police and after their arrival leave the premises.
(v) Avoid panic.
CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
Exposure of People in the Event Chemical and Industrial Accidents :
In the event of fIres, chemical leaks or explosions in industrial facilities, people are exposed to the following dangers.
(1) The fIre spreading in the industry and the residential areas nearby causes huge loss to life and property.
(2) Heat waves occur.
(3) Chemical gas leak are poisonous and kill people immediately.
(4) Combustion of various products and heat waves cause huge loss to people and workers.
(5) Low oxygen levels cause people die or fall then victim to various respiratory unemployed.
(6) Falling of structural elements and machinery make people homeless and diseases.
(7) Contamination of the nearby environment (land, water and air) make people suffer of various problems.
Bhopal Chemical Gas Leak Disaster :
(1) It occurred on 3 December, 1984.
(2) It was one of the worst industrial disasters in Bhopal.
(3) The tragedy was a technological accident in which 45 tonnes of highly poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union Carbide.
(4) It was the night time at around 12.30 a.m.
(5) The offIcial death toll reached 3,598 in 1989.
(6) Thousands, survived. They face a fate worse than death due to several chronological diseases.
Onset Type and Warning :
1. Onset Type Industrial disaster generally onset rapidly and suddenly without any warning. It depends on the nature of its occurrence.
2. Occurrence and Type of Disaster. Release of chemicals occurs due to human error, technological failure or natural activities like earthquakes, natural fIres floods etc.
3. The industrial facility should have monitoring and warning systems for fIre and building up of dangerous conditions.Explosion in some of the cases can be anticipated and people working in industrial establishments and those living in nearby areas must be informed about this.
Elements at Risk :
Following are the elements at Risk for Chemical and Industrial Accidents:
(1) The industrial set up.
(2) Nearby Environment. The environment which includes land, water and air will get polluted.
(3) Employees of the work place.
(4) Residents of nearby settlements.
(5) Livestock, and
(6) Crops in the nearby vicinity.
— Hazardous substance released into the air or water due to chemical accident, travel long distances and cause contamination of air, water supply.
— They make land uninhabitable for humans.
— Large scale disasters threaten the ecological system.
• Typical Effects of Chemical and industrial Accidents
(i) Physical Damage : (a) Damage to structures and infrastructure (b) In case of explosion fire or release of toxins in the air pollute tl).e environments.
(ii) Casualties : (a) Nbmerous people are killed and injured. (15) The routes of exposure in chemical accidents are inhalation, eye exposure, skin.contact and ingestion. (c) human organs get affected. (d) Diseases like cancer, heart failure, brain damage, disfunction of immune system, deformation, genetic disorders.congenital disorders occur. (e) Fire spread to a large area. (f) People die of burning and aspyxiation.
(iii) Environmental : (a) Contamination of air, water and land. (b) Standing crops are destroyed. (c) Particular areas become inhabitable due to the damage cause.d to the environment.
• Possible Risk Reduction Measures. of Chemical Accidents :
1. Hazard Mapping :
(i) We should prepare inventories and maps of storage locations of toxins.
(ii) Hazardous substances along with the possible characteristics are to be displayed and known to all.
(iii) The community and people who stay in the immediate neighbourhood should be made aware of the hazard and possible effects in case of an accident.
(iv) The map should also show the area that may get affected in case of an accident.
(v) Hazard map should also show possible zone which will get affected.
(vi) Safe route for evacuation should be marked on the map.
(vii) Hazard maps should be displayed at strategic locations.
2. Land Use Planning:
(i) Densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from industrial areas.
(ii) A green belt should separate the industrial and the residential zone, so that in case of an accident the residential areas are not ill-affected.
3. Community Preparedness :
(i) The community and the people should be made aware of the hazardous installations.
(ii) They should know to combat the situation.
(iii) The local community should be informed about the response steps to be taken in case of an accident.
(iv) Community members should monitor the pollution levels of the industry and participate in mock drills for preparedness.
4. Other Possible Risk Reduction Measures. These include the following
(i) Maintain the wind flow diagram of the region.
(ii) Improve fIre resistance and warning systems.
(iii) Improve fIre fIghting and pollution dispersion capabilities.
(iv) Develop emergency relief and evaluation planning for employees and nearby settlements.
(v) Limit storage capacity of the toxic substances.
(vi) Insurance for industries and
(vii) Safety legislation.
• Definition : An epidemic is defmed as the occurrence of an illness or other health-related event that is unusually large or unexpected.
• Spread of Plague : Male Xanopsylia cheopis that is an oriental rat flea engorge with blood. This flea is the primary vector of plague in most large plague epidemics in Asia, Africa and South America. Both male and female fleas transmit the infection.
Onset and Warning
The onset of an epidemic is either rapid or sudden. This depends on several factors. An epidemic is confIrmed when numerous people suffer from a particular disease. In some cases an epidemic is predicted by an increase in the vector breading. sites. It can also be predicted in the death of the disease carriers. A good example for disease c.arrier is flea on rodents (rats) that cause plague.
Outbreak of an Epidemic :
An outbreak of an epidemic is the occurrence of cases of a particular disease in excess of the expected. It demands implementation of emergency control measures. The threat of epidemic outbreaks is greater after a disaster has occurred, and a large popuhitions have been displaced. An epidemic occurs where there is no equilibrium between the population's susceptibility; the virulence of the infectious agent and the environment.
Causes of Epidemics :
(1) The main cause for an epidemic is (virus, bacteria, protozoa or rarely fungi). They are combinedly called pathogen.
(2) Other causes are enumerated as under :
(a) Poor sanitary conditions that contaminate food and water. These conditions also suffice the environment for breeding conditions for the vector.
(b) The seasonal changes that favour. the breeding of an insect vector like mosquito in the rainy season.
(c) Exposure of a non-immune person like tourists and migrants.
(f) Impact of natural disasters on the environment also leads to outbreak of epidemic. Number of outbreaks has increased due to exposure of unreported cases of diseases.
Elements At Risk for An Epidemic :
(1) Population of a particular community whether localized (within a country) or pandemic (spread across countries).
Typical Effects of An Epidemic
(1) Illness and death.
(2) Disruption in the society.
(3) Economic losses.
(4) Poorly nourished people.
(5) People living in unhygienic sanitary conditions
(6) Poor water supply.
(7) Individuals who have no access to the health services.
(8) Those who have weak immune systems.
The outbreak of an epidemic in areas where already a natural calamity has struck causes threat to life.
Risk reduction Measures of An Epidemic :
(1) Clear understanding of roles and responsibilities of the public health system.
(2) Organizational preparedness.
(3) Coordination mechanism right from the State and District to the sub center level. It should be manned by the Village Health Nurses or the Health Workers.
(4) Identification of the epidemics.
(5) Preparation of Contingency Plan for response.
(6) Early warning system should be strengthened for effective response and prevent any outbreaks.
(7) Maps of all the health facilities in the region-with an inventory of drugs and vaccines, laboratory list of number of doctors and supporting staff etc., should be kept ready and updated at regular intervals for takmg immediate action.
(8) Training of the health personnel at all levels to build the capacity of people at all the levels. It helps to cope with epidemics better during the emergency response period.
(9) Personal protection through vaccination is an effective mitigation strategy. It protects the persons at risk.
(10) Common sources of infection carriers is to be tackled by many measures. Such as (a) improving the sanitary conditions, (b) drive to check and fumigate breeding places of source of infection, (c) improving disposal methods of waste (d) disinfecting the water source.
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