CBSE Class 8 Social Science Agriculture Notes

Scroll down for PDF

CBSE Class 8 Social Science Agriculture Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

AGRICULTURE

IMPORTANT TERMS

*Agriculture: The art and science of a cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.
*Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grow the crop with the aim of selling it .in the market.:
*Dry Farming : Dry farming is adopted. to scanty rain fall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities.
*Extensive Agriculture : Agriculture in which the farmer tries to get the greatest out put by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation.
*Green Revolution: A break through in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production especially in wheat as a result of better inputs.
*Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegtetables, fruits and flowers.
*Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agriculture production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
*Kharif season: It is an agriculiural cropping season from early June to October. Ex. Rice, millets etc.
*Plantation Agriculture : A large scale farming of one crop resembling factory production based on capital investment and application of modern science and technology in cultivating, processing and- marketing the fmal products.
*Rabi season: It is an agricultural cropping season from November to May e.g. wheat, gram, oilseeds etc.
*Minimum Support Price: It is the,minimum!ind reasonable price fixed by the government at which-the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies.
*Shifting Agriculture : It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear forest land and use it following crops.
When the fertility of the soil decreases the farmer shifts to new land.
*Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmers house hold.
*Blue Revolution : A package programme introduced to increase the production of fish and fish product.
*Sericulture: Rearing of silk-worms to produce raw silk.
*Zaid: It is a short season summer crop where fruits like watermelon and vegetables like cucumber are grown.
*Viticultive : It means cultivation of grapes.

AGRICULTURE
The term agriculture is derived from two latin words, ager· meaning land and cultur meaning cultivation. In modern days agriculture also includes animal husbandry, Forestry and Pisiculture.
Definition :
The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.

Importance of Agriculture:
1. Two thirds of the population is dependent on agriculture.
2. It generates large scale employment.
3. It provides raw materials to many agro based industries.
4. Export of agricultural products earns valuable foreign exchange. It contributes to 26 % of GDP.

TYPES OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA
*Primitive Subsistence Farming Shifting Cultivation Nomadi Herding
(a) This shifting cultivation on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, and digging stick and family/community labour.
(b) Farming depends upon monsoons, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.
(c) It is a slash and burn agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce food crops to sustain their family.
(d) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
(e) Nature replenishes the fertility of the soil through natural processes.
(f) Farmers do not use manure, fertilizer or other modern inputs.
(g) It is known by different names in different parts of the country.
(i) Jhumming - Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland.
(ii) Pamlou - Manipur
(iii) Dipa - Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman and Nicobar Island.

*Nomadic Herding : In this type of forming, animal herders or pastoralist more along with their herds of animals from one place to another. This is found is Sahara ; Sourth West Africa

Intensive Subsistence Farming
(a) Fields are very small.
(b) There is intensive use of land due to high pressure of population on the agriculture land
(c) Cropping pattern is dominated by food crops.
(d) More than one crop is grown in the same field.
(e) Farmers apply modern inputs to obtain high yield.
(f) It is a labour intensive farming.

*Commercial Farming
(a) Use of higher dose of modern inputs ego HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
(b) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. e.g. Rice is commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab but in Orissa, it is subsistence crop.

*Plantation Farming
1. It is also a type of commercial farming.
2. A single crop is grown on a large area.
3. It has an interface of agriculture and industry.
4, It is done over large tracts of land using capital intensive inputs.
5. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
6. The production is mainly for market.
7. A well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industry and market is important.
8. Example of plantation crops are Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana etc.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTENSIVE FARMING AND EXTENSIVE FARMING.

class_8_social_concept_01

AGRICULTURAL SEASONS
*Rabi Crops
(a) Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
(b) Harvested in summer from April to June.
(c) Example of Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard etc.
(d) Region: Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal.

Factor responsible for growth of Rabi crops.
1. Availability of precipitation due to western disturbances.
2. Fertile alluvial traits deposited by rivers from north.

Please click the link below to download pdf file for CBSE Class 8 Social Science Agriculture Notes.


Click on the text For more study material for Social Science please click here - Social Science

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

CBSE to launch 'Tamanna' aptitude test

Introduction: The poor decisive condition of students to pursue their subject of interest has been an area of concern. To the ease of which CBSE is to launch ‘Tamanna’. An aptitude test in order to provide a line of guidance to students of class 9th and 10th. What is '...

Sample Papers for Class 12 Boards 2020

CBSE has released the final sample papers for the class 12 boards exams as per the new pattern as per which the question papers are expected to come in the 2020 board exams for class 12. The sample papers have been for class 12 for all subjects along with the suggested...

Tips for exam preparation

Students often get nervous during their exams. The reason behind this nervousness is either a lack of confidence or a lack of preparedness. To overcome these fears students are advised to do their preparation in such a way that will retain their confidence. For this...

TIPS: Study habits for success

Being a student is fairly a difficult job. Alongside maintaining your curricular as well as extra-curricular activities adds more to it. Performance in academics is one of the major concerns. Every parent now tries to get their children more indulged in studies. Need...

CBSE class 10, 12 board exam important information

CBSE class 10, 12 board exam: important information to prevent problems for students : The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has issued an advisory for the students of class 10 and class 12 board. As per the notice, the registration of students appearing in...

CBSE DATE SHEET 2020

Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE is to conduct the 10th and 12th Board Examination 2020 from February 15, 2020. Due to University Admissions, CBSE has shifted Board Exams dates from 1 March to February 15 from 2019. This year too CBSE would be making changes...

×
Studies Today