CBSE Class 8 Social Science Agriculture Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
*Agriculture: The art and science of a cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.
*Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grow the crop with the aim of selling it .in the market.:
*Dry Farming : Dry farming is adopted. to scanty rain fall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities.
*Extensive Agriculture : Agriculture in which the farmer tries to get the greatest out put by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation.
*Green Revolution: A break through in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production especially in wheat as a result of better inputs.
*Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegtetables, fruits and flowers.
*Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agriculture production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
*Kharif season: It is an agriculiural cropping season from early June to October. Ex. Rice, millets etc.
*Plantation Agriculture : A large scale farming of one crop resembling factory production based on capital investment and application of modern science and technology in cultivating, processing and- marketing the fmal products.
*Rabi season: It is an agricultural cropping season from November to May e.g. wheat, gram, oilseeds etc.
*Minimum Support Price: It is the,minimum!ind reasonable price fixed by the government at which-the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies.
*Shifting Agriculture : It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear forest land and use it following crops.
When the fertility of the soil decreases the farmer shifts to new land.
*Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmers house hold.
*Blue Revolution : A package programme introduced to increase the production of fish and fish product.
*Sericulture: Rearing of silk-worms to produce raw silk.
*Zaid: It is a short season summer crop where fruits like watermelon and vegetables like cucumber are grown.
*Viticultive : It means cultivation of grapes.
The term agriculture is derived from two latin words, ager· meaning land and cultur meaning cultivation. In modern days agriculture also includes animal husbandry, Forestry and Pisiculture.
The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.
Importance of Agriculture:
1. Two thirds of the population is dependent on agriculture.
2. It generates large scale employment.
3. It provides raw materials to many agro based industries.
4. Export of agricultural products earns valuable foreign exchange. It contributes to 26 % of GDP.
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA
*Primitive Subsistence Farming Shifting Cultivation Nomadi Herding
(a) This shifting cultivation on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, and digging stick and family/community labour.
(b) Farming depends upon monsoons, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.
(c) It is a slash and burn agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce food crops to sustain their family.
(d) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
(e) Nature replenishes the fertility of the soil through natural processes.
(f) Farmers do not use manure, fertilizer or other modern inputs.
(g) It is known by different names in different parts of the country.
(i) Jhumming - Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland.
(ii) Pamlou - Manipur
(iii) Dipa - Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman and Nicobar Island.
*Nomadic Herding : In this type of forming, animal herders or pastoralist more along with their herds of animals from one place to another. This is found is Sahara ; Sourth West Africa
Intensive Subsistence Farming
(a) Fields are very small.
(b) There is intensive use of land due to high pressure of population on the agriculture land
(c) Cropping pattern is dominated by food crops.
(d) More than one crop is grown in the same field.
(e) Farmers apply modern inputs to obtain high yield.
(f) It is a labour intensive farming.
(a) Use of higher dose of modern inputs ego HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
(b) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. e.g. Rice is commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab but in Orissa, it is subsistence crop.
1. It is also a type of commercial farming.
2. A single crop is grown on a large area.
3. It has an interface of agriculture and industry.
4, It is done over large tracts of land using capital intensive inputs.
5. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
6. The production is mainly for market.
7. A well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industry and market is important.
8. Example of plantation crops are Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana etc.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTENSIVE FARMING AND EXTENSIVE FARMING.
(a) Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
(b) Harvested in summer from April to June.
(c) Example of Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard etc.
(d) Region: Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal.
Factor responsible for growth of Rabi crops.
1. Availability of precipitation due to western disturbances.
2. Fertile alluvial traits deposited by rivers from north.
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