Revision Notes for Class 8 Social Science Agriculture
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Agriculture in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Agriculture Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Social Science Agriculture Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
*Agriculture: The art and science of a cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.
*Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grow the crop with the aim of selling it .in the market.:
*Dry Farming : Dry farming is adopted. to scanty rain fall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities.
*Extensive Agriculture : Agriculture in which the farmer tries to get the greatest out put by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation.
*Green Revolution: A break through in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production especially in wheat as a result of better inputs.
*Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegtetables, fruits and flowers.
*Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agriculture production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
*Kharif season: It is an agriculiural cropping season from early June to October. Ex. Rice, millets etc.
*Plantation Agriculture : A large scale farming of one crop resembling factory production based on capital investment and application of modern science and technology in cultivating, processing and- marketing the fmal products.
*Rabi season: It is an agricultural cropping season from November to May e.g. wheat, gram, oilseeds etc.
*Minimum Support Price: It is the,minimum!ind reasonable price fixed by the government at which-the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies.
*Shifting Agriculture : It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear forest land and use it following crops. When the fertility of the soil decreases the farmer shifts to new land.
*Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmers house hold.
*Blue Revolution : A package programme introduced to increase the production of fish and fish product.
*Sericulture: Rearing of silk-worms to produce raw silk.
*Zaid: It is a short season summer crop where fruits like watermelon and vegetables like cucumber are grown.
*Viticultive : It means cultivation of grapes.
The term agriculture is derived from two latin words, ager· meaning land and cultur meaning cultivation. In modern days agriculture also includes animal husbandry, Forestry and Pisiculture.
The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest.
Importance of Agriculture:
1. Two thirds of the population is dependent on agriculture.
2. It generates large scale employment.
3. It provides raw materials to many agro based industries.
4. Export of agricultural products earns valuable foreign exchange. It contributes to 26 % of GDP.
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA
*Primitive Subsistence Farming Shifting Cultivation Nomadi Herding
(a) This shifting cultivation on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, and digging stick and family/community labour.
(b) Farming depends upon monsoons, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.
(c) It is a slash and burn agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce food crops to sustain their family.
(d) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
(e) Nature replenishes the fertility of the soil through natural processes.
(f) Farmers do not use manure, fertilizer or other modern inputs.
(g) It is known by different names in different parts of the country.
(i) Jhumming - Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland.
(ii) Pamlou - Manipur
(iii) Dipa - Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman and Nicobar Island.
*Nomadic Herding : In this type of forming, animal herders or pastoralist more along with their herds of animals from one place to another. This is found is Sahara ; Sourth West Africa
Intensive Subsistence Farming
(a) Fields are very small.
(b) There is intensive use of land due to high pressure of population on the agriculture land
(c) Cropping pattern is dominated by food crops.
(d) More than one crop is grown in the same field.
(e) Farmers apply modern inputs to obtain high yield.
(f) It is a labour intensive farming.
(a) Use of higher dose of modern inputs ego HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
(b) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. e.g. Rice is commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab but in Orissa, it is subsistence crop.
1. It is also a type of commercial farming.
2. A single crop is grown on a large area.
3. It has an interface of agriculture and industry.
4, It is done over large tracts of land using capital intensive inputs.
5. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
6. The production is mainly for market.
7. A well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industry and market is important.
8. Example of plantation crops are Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana etc.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTENSIVE FARMING AND EXTENSIVE FARMING.
(a) Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
(b) Harvested in summer from April to June.
(c) Example of Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard etc.
(d) Region: Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal.
Factor responsible for growth of Rabi crops.
1. Availability of precipitation due to western disturbances.
2. Fertile alluvial traits deposited by rivers from north.
3. Success of Green Revolution.
(a) The crops which are sown with the onset of monsoon and harvested 'in September - October.
(b) Rice, maize, jowar, bajra, moong, cotton,jute groundnut are some of the important kharif crops.
(c) Important rice growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, Coastal region of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra.
(d) In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.
1. The crops which are grown in between rabi and the kharif crops are known as Zaid crops.
2. Watermelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are example of Zaid crops.
FOOD CROPS OF INDIA
1. It is the staple food crop of the people living in eastern and sourthern parts of India.
2. In the north it is a kharif crop and in the south it grows with the help of irrigation throughout the year.
3. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
Temperature: Above 25°C to 30° (Sowing, growing and harvesting)
1. Annual rainfall above 100 cm to 200 cm. Irrigation is required where rainfall is less.
2. The field must be flooded with water at the time of transplanation and during early stage of growth.
3. Frequent showers before ripening ensure larger grain size.
Soil : It can grow in variety of soils including silts, loam and gravels. But it grows best in alluvial soil.
Area of production: West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Orissa, Karnataka.
1. Second most important cereal crop.
2. Main food in north and north-western part of the country.
3. India is the fourth largest producer of wheat in the world.
4. It is a Rabi crop. (winter crop).
5. It grows well in a coal and moist climate, fertile soil moderate rain fall.
Temperature: 24°C monthly.
1. 10°C to 15°C during growing season.
2. 25°C to 28° C at the time of ripening.
1. 50 cm to 75 cm
2. The western disturbances cause light rainfall is highly benefical to the wheat crop.
1. Well drained fertile soil, heavy textured soil with some amount of lime.
2. Clayey, loamy soil of the Ganga Plain.
3. Black soil of Deccan Plateau.
Area of Production : Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are major producer of wheat. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra etc are others.
1. Jowar, bajara and ragi are important millets grown in India.
2. It is the common name fpr several species of the grass family.
3. It is known as coarse grain.
4. They have very high nutritional value.
(a) It is third important fogd crop of India.
(b) It is a rain fed crop which can be grown in the arid areas.
(c) It needs less irrigation.
(d) Maharashtra,. Kamataka, Andhra Pradesh are the leading producer of Jowar.
(a) It is a dry crop.
(b) It grows well in sandy and shallow black soil. (c) Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajara.
(e) Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana are ,other state.
(a) It is a crop of dry regions.
(b) It grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soil. (c) It is very rich in iron, calcium and roughage.
(d) Kamataka is the largest producer ofragi followed by Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesb, Uttarancnal, S'ikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.,
1. It is itll',o a coarse grain.
2 It is used both as food and fodder crop. It is a Kharif crop.
3. Temperature: 21°C to 27°C, Soil : old alluvial soil.
4. Major producing state: Karnataka, U.P., Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, M.P.
5. In Bihar it is grown in rabi-season.
1. India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
2. Major source of protein in it vegetarian diet.
3. Being leguminous crops, all these crops except Arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
4. Tur, Urad and Moong are grown as Kharif crops.
5. Masur, peas and gram are grown as Rabi crops.
Temperature: 20°C to 30°C
(i) Grown in all types of soil.
(ii) Dry soil is most suitable.
1. Low to moderate rainfall
2. 25 cm to 50 cm
3. Too much rain fall after sowing and during flowering is damaging.
4. Area of Production: Punjab, Haryana, U.P., M.P., Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Bihar.
FOOD CROPS OTHER THAN GRAINS
1. It is a tropical as well as sub tropical crop.
2. It belongs to the grass family.
3. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil.
4. It is the main source of sugar, gur, khandsari and molasses.
1. Hot and humid climate
2. 21°C to 27°C
3. Coal temperature is needed at the time of ripening.
1. 75 cm to 100 cm.
2. 100 heavy rain fall results in low sugar content.
1. It can grow variety of soils like black alluvial, loamy and reddish loam.
2. The best soil is alluvial soil of the Ganga plain and black soil of Southern India.
Areas of Production:
1. Uttar Pradesh is largest producer of sugar cane. Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are other state.
2. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are the state of Peninsular India.
1. India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world.
2. Different oilseeds are grown covering approximately 12 % of the total cropped area of the country.
3. Main oil seeds are ground nut, mustard, coconut, Sesamum (til), soybean, costor seeds, cotton seeds linseeds and sunflower.
4. Groundnut is a Kharif crop and is produced in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
5. Linseed and Mustard are rabi crops.
6. Sesamum is a Kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.
7. Castor seed is grown both as Rabi & Kharif crop.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF OIL SEEDS
1. Most of these are edible and used as cooking medium.
2. Extracted oil is also used as raw material for manufacturing large number of items.
3. Oil cake which is the by-product, obtained after the extraction of oil from oil seeds is excellent cattle feed.
4. Oil cake is also used as fertilizer.
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