CBSE Class 8 Social Science Education and British Rule Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
EDUCATION AND BRITISH RULE
THE NEW EDUCATION SYSTEM
What is the New Education System?
1. The British Government used education as a weapon and a tool for promoting its own interests.
2. The educational system which the British introduced in India is known as the New Education System.
3. British laid stress on the teaching of English language and its literature, and the study of Indian languages were generally neglected.
4. Moreover, modern education was based on logic and scientific research rather than on faith and ritualism.
5. New schools, colleges and universities were opened for the spread of English language and literature, fixed syllabi were formed and more attention began to the given to technical education, though at a slower pace.
CAUSES OR OBJECTIVES FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW EDUCATION SYSTEM OR MODERN EDUCATION
The English introduced the New Education system or modern education in India to fulfil their various objectives.
The chief among them are the following :
* To Appoint Indians on the Administration : The English introduced modern education in India with the sole object of reducing the expenditure incurred on administration. In different departments, they needed a large number of such employees who could not be brought from England. This demand could be met only by employing the educated Indians who could prove far less ex[?ensive than the Europeans.
*To Encourage the Study of English language and spread western culturs : The English were now the masters of India and like all masters (alien rulers) they too wished that the people under their rule should learn their language which they must use in communicating with them. Besides they thought that as a result of the learning of English the Indian people would easily accept the British rule.
*To Expand Market for English Goods : The English capitalists thought that after learning the English language and acquiring western education, the Indians would become semi-English. According to Macaulay the Indians would then remain Indians only in their colour, while in their interests, ideas, morals and intelligence they would become English. In such conditions the market for British goods would automatically expand. ,
* Spread of Christianity : The Christian missionaries believed that the modern education would end among the Indians what little faith they had in their religious beliefs. Thus, they would be attracted towards Christianity.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE COMPANY TO INTRODUCE WESTERN EDUCATION IN INDIA
*Early Efforts : In the beginning the Company never took it as its duty to give education to the Indians. It was a commercial Company and its sole motive was to earn profits and not to spend money on education. Nevertheless, some British officers in their individual capacity tried to make reforms in this direction. In A.D. 1781, Warren Hastings did some work in this direction. Similarly Sir William Jones, a Judge of the Supreme Court, founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal in A.D. 1784. This society, in later years, did a lot of work in spreading education. In A.D. 1792, the Resident of Benaras took special interest in spread i ng education and started several Engl ish schools and colleges where English was taught. The missionaries started for the same purpose the Wilson College at Bombay, the Christian College at Madras and the 51. John College at Agra. SomE progressive Indians like Raja Rammohan Roy also started English schools. Raja Rammohan Roy laid the foundation of a school at Calcutta in AD. 1816.
Charter Act of A.D. 1813 : In England, a feeling was gaining ground that the Company had done practically little for the intellectual and moral development of the Indian people. It was, therefore, laid in the Charter Act of AD. 1813 that the Company would set aside a sum of rupees one lakh for promoting the knowledge of modern sciences in India, But even this meagre amount was not utilised for several years as no decision could be
reached as to what the medium of education should be.
* Lord Macaulay and Decision regarding the Medium of Instruction in A.D. 1835 : It was during the period of Lord William Bentinck (1828-35) that Lord Macaulay and Raja Rammohan Roy, a representative of the progressive Indians, made efforts so that a decision was taken in AD. 1835 to promote the teaching of western sciences and literature through the medium of English alone. Another important step was taken to encourage English learning in AD. 1844 when it was decided, during the period of Lord Hardinge, that only those Indians who had sufficient knowledge of English be appointed on
*Charles Wood's Despatch, A.D. 1854 : Charles .Wood, the President of the Board of Control, did yeoman's job in spreading education in India when in A.D. 1854 in he sent a Despatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then a Governor-General of India. It was recommended there that :-
(i) An Education Department was to be established in every province.
(ii) Universities on the model of the London University be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
(iii) At least one government school should be opened in every district.
(iv) Affiliated Private Schools should be given grant-in aid.
(v) The Indian natives should be given training in their mother-tongue also.
In accordance with the Wood's Despatch, Education Departments were established in every province and universities were opened at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in A.D. 1857 and in Punjab in A.D. 1882 and at Allahabad A.D. 1887.
* Drawbacks of the Company's System of Education
(i) Lack of Funds : Even the meagre amount of one lakh set aside for educational purposes could not be spent till A.D. 1833.
(ii) Neglect of the Common People : The Company never took a serious interest in the field of education. By educating the members of the higher and the middle classes only they created a serious gap between various classes of the Indian people. The only object of their educational system was to prepare clerks who would carryon the work of the Company's administration smoothly. It simply shows the selfishness of
(iii) The Medium of Instruction : All the subjects were taught through English as such the study of Indian languages was neglected. All those who got their training in English considered themselves superior to others. Thus, a class of people were born who were Indians only in blood and colour but who considered themselves English in thought and in their way of living.
(iv) Neglect of the Women's Education: No funds were set aside for the education of women, as women's education had no uti I ity for the English. On the other hand, in doing so they were afraid of hurting the sentiments of the Indian people as the conservative Indian opinion was against giving any education to their women folk.
(v) Neglect of Scientific and Technical Education : The English government never paid any attention towards imparting scientific and technical education. But A.D. 1857 only three Medical Colleges, one each at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, and one Engineering College at Roorkee were opened. Admission to these colleges was open only for the Europeans. As such the Indians were almost totally neglected. Despite the above drawbacks, we can say that the British had played a very important role in the promotion of education in India. It was this education which later on inspired a number of Indians with the fire of nationalism which ultimately rooted out the British Empire from the Indian soil.
CHANGES IN THE INDIGENOUS SYSTEMS
Before the advent of the English both the Hindus and the Muslims had their own educational institutions like Maktabs, Madrassas, Pathshalas, Mosques and Temple Schools. But the advent of the English and the establishment of their rule in India forced the East India Company to establish their own system of education in India. Ultimately a decision was taken in A.D. 1835, during the Governor Generalship of Lord William Bentinck, to promote the teachings of Western education through the medium of English alone. As a result of such a policy the traditional system of education gradually withered away for lack of official support and the announcement of the government (in 1844) that applicants for government job should possess knowledge of English language and
GROWTH OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
The Swadeshi and the Boycott movement shook the very foundation of the British empire in India. During this movement the students took a major part, which drew upon them the wrath of the British Government. Many students were expelled from their schools and colleges. Circular after circular was issued to different schools and colleges to take severe disciplinary action against such students who were found taking part in Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement. Not only the students were, fined and expelled but many teachers were also forced to resign when they refused to fine and whip the students. Such actions on the part of the authorities forced the students to boycott the Calcutta University. At such a critical juncture many eminent persons of Bengal got together and held a conference on 10th November 1905.
In this conference they decided to establish a National Council of Education in order to organise a system of education on national lines and in national hands. Within no time a huge amount was collected and the National Council of Education was set up in a large house with a compound donated by a nationalist donor. Within no time many national schools and colleges were founded. According to an estimate by 1908 the number of secondary schools grew to 25 and primary national schools to 300. The expelled students and teachers who were forced to resign were absorbed and adjusted in these national schools.
In its session of 1906 the Bengal Provincial Conference endorsed the idea of establishing national schools throughout the country. The Indian National Congress in its Calcutta session of 1906 also approved the resolution of opening national institutions throughout the country. In moving the revolution Hirendernath Datta said, Swadeshis is a three-faced goddess, The one face or aspect of the goddess is political, the second face is industrial and last, but not the least is the educational.
Thus, in 1905 with the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement the National Education also became a part and parcel of the national movement.