Revision Notes for Class 8 Social Science Manufacturing Industries
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Manufacturing Industries in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Manufacturing Industries Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Social Science Manufacturing Industries Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
• Industry : An economic activity that is concerned with production of goods. extraction of minerals or provision of services.
• Manufacturing : The conversion of raw materials into useful commodities.
• Cottage Industry : Industry carried by members of a family in their home.
• Basic Industry : The industry which serves as a base for the growth of other industries.
• Consumer Industry : The industry whose goods are directly used by consumers.
• Industrial Regions or Complexes : Industrial regions or complexes are those areas where Industries cluster together to take advantage of the raw materials available.
• Infrastructure : Development of social and economic structure which forms the basis of overall development of a country.
• Public Sector Industry : Industry which is controlled by the Government and is run for the welfare of the people.
• Private Sector Industry : Industry owned by individuals or private persons and is run for the motive of gaining money.
• Primary Products : Products obtained from nature directly like agriculture, animal husbandry, mining etc.
• Secondary Products : Products obtained from factory where the primary product is being processed into consumer goods like, cloth, sugar etc.
• Raw Materials : Crude materials or mineral ores which can be processed into a fine product.
• Perishable : Materials which cannot be sustained and are liable to decay or spoilage.
• Synthetic Fibre : Fibre obtained and synthesised from chemicals especially hydrocarbons e.g., nylon, rayon etc.
• Flux : A substance that reduces the melting point of a mixture.
• Infrastructure : Inputs or local facilities required for the establishment and growth of industrial unit.
• Information Technology : A system through which we can store, process and distribute information at great speed with the help of computers, calculators, telephones etc.
• Industrial System. A system in a production unit which comprises inputs, processes and outputs is known as industrial system.
• Industrial Disaster. The miss-happening or disaster occurring at ,industrial level is known .as industrial disaster. This disaster occurs due to technical failure or ill handling of hazardous materials.
• Smelting. Extracting of metals from their ores is known as smelting. The process requires melting point heat.
ON THE BASIS OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT
• Large scale Industry :
1. Employ a large number' of labqurers.
2. Huge investment i.e. lndore than force is involved in large scale industry.
• Small Scale Industry :
1. Industries which are owned and' nui by individuals.
2. Employ a small number of labourers.
3. Small investment i.e. less than 1 crore Rs. are invested.
ON THE BASIS OF RAW MATERIAL
• Heavy Industries :
Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials and produce products which are heavy and bulky are called Heavy Industry. e.g. Iron & steel industry.
• Light Industries :
The light industry uses light raw material and produce light fmished product. e.g., Electric fans, Sewing machines.
ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP
1. Private sector Industries : Industries which owned by individual or fIrms such as Bajaj, Tisco are called private industries.
2. Public sector Industries : Industries owned by the state and its agencies. e.g., BHEL Bhilai steel Plant, Durgapur Steel Plane.
3. Joint sector Industries : Industries owned jointly by the state and private firms such as Gujarat Alkalies Ltd. or Oil India Ltd.
4. Co-Operative sector Industries : Industries owned and run Co-operatively by a group of people whio are generally producers of raw materials of the given industry. e.g. sugar mill.
ON THE 'BASIS OF SOURCE OF RAW MATERIAL
• Agro Based Industries:
Those industries which obtain raw mater.iai from agriculture.' e.g. Cotton textile, Jute textile, Sugar etc.
• Mineral Based Industries:
The industry that receive raw mater~al from minerals. e.g. Iron and steel industry. aluminium and cement industry.
ACCORDING TO THEIR ROLE
• Cottage Industry :
Industries which artisans setup in their own houses, work with wood, cane, brass, stone are called cottage industries. e.g. Handloom, Khadi and Leather.
• Consumer Industry :
Consumer industries convert raw material or primary products into commodities which are directly used by the people. e.g. cotton textile, sugar industry, vegetable oil etc.
CRAFT AND INDUSTRIES
ECONOMIC DRAIN OF INDIA
After the Battle of Plassey, British got the right to collect the taxes from Bengal and it utilized earnings from taxes to buy Indian goods. Thus, began the process of drain of India's wealth, India witnessed a drain of wealth in the 18th and 19th centuries through trade with East India Company and the various charges imposed by it on the Indians. During the 19th century, two simultaneous process took place– Industrialisation of Britain and deindustrialisation of India.
The process of disruption of traditional Indian crafts and decline in national income has been referred to as deindustrialisation of Indian Economy.
DECLINE OF TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIES
The decline of traditional industries in India was considered invitable by the British officials as part of the process of modernisation as it had happened in the West. In England, the suffering caused by the decline of handicrafts was soon accompanied by greater employment opportunities and income generating effect of factory industries. In colonial India, the artisans were made to bear the burden of development in a country six thousand miles away, since the growth of Indian factories was non-existent before the 1850's and 1860's and painfully slow even afterwards. The only choice left for craftsmen and artisans was to turn to agriculture.
The gradual destruction of rural crafts broke up the union between agriculture and domestic industry in the countryside and this in turn led to the destruction of the self-sufficient village economy. On one hand, hundreds of peasants who had supplemented their income by part time spinning and weaving now had to rely overwhelmingly on cultivation. On the other hand, hundreds of rural artisans lost their traditional source of livelihood and became agricultural labourers. This increasing pressure on agriculture was one of the major causes of extreme poverty of India under British rule. thus, the process of industrialisation of Britain was accompanied by deindustrialisation of India.
However, peasant crafts, which were practised as a subsidiary occupation during the lean agricultural season, using locally available cheap raw materials such as basket weaving and craftwork were immune to competition from machine made foreign goods. Minor manufacturers in villages like potters, blacksmiths etc. were also not ,much affected.
The industrial Revolution of Europe coupled with high import duties and other restrictions imposed on the Indian goods in Britain and other European countries during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries wiped out the market for Indian artisans in Europe because the mass production in the new English factories made it impossible for Indian artisan's products to compete with factory products.
Till 1813, Indian industry, especially the textile industry, was adversely affected in two ways. Firstly, the company reduced the weavers to the status of indentured labour, by forcing them to take an advance from the company. In 1789, for example, the weavers were forced to pay a penalty of 35% on the advance taken if they defaulted in supplying goods. Secondly, in 1813, the British parliament imposed an increased consolidated duty on consumption of calicoes and muslins in Britain.
Due to the discriminatory colonial economic policy, India was reduced almost totally to the status of an exporter of raw or processed agricultural goods. It meant that there was a reversal of roles for India and England. India ceased being an exporter of cotton cloth and became an importer of cloth and yarn, while England stopped importing cloth from India and acquired an export market of that commodity in India.
WEAVERS AND WEAVING TECHNIQUES :-
From the medieval times till the nineteenth century India's skilled weavers had been making use of the loom for weaving clothes and the spinning wheel or the charkha for cleaning cotton and spinning yarn. The spinners sold their yarns to the weaver.
Weavers lived in weaving villages as a closely knit community because it helped them to bargain better with merchants and later with company officials. Most weavers owned (and worked in) one loom but some could own two to five looms. Head weavers represented their weaving villages with foreign agents.
Indigo, madder, turmeric and saffron were the most common plants used to dye the cloth.
MODERN INDUSTRIES IN INDIA :-
The second half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a few modern industries in India. These were mostly owned and controlled by the British companies. Industrialisation on a large scale, however, occurred only after India's independence. Tea, introduced in the nineteenth century, went on to become the biggest plantation industry. Coffee, cinchona and rubber were the other items of plantation industry which found a world widemarket.
However, it was the British capital which monopolised these till the end of British rule in India.
The machine industries began in the second half of the nineteenth century. Of these, the most important ones were the cotton and jute industries. Textile industry made a steady progress and just before the First World War, India ranked fourth among the leading textile producers of the world. While most of jute mills were owned by the British, a number of textile mills were owned by Indians too. Cotton mills were mostly set up at Ahmedabad, Bombay and Madras.
The first cotton mill was set up in 1853, in Bombay. They produced cotton yarn for the cottage industries of India. Despite stiff competition from England and later Japan, Indian cotton industry continued to develop. The modern industries included iron and steel, cement, chemical and power which are also required for other industries.
Iron and steel industry in India did not have a great beginning. However, under Jamshedji Tata it took the shape of the famous Tata Iron and Steel Company. Iron industry was built up in India mainly through Indian skills, capital and enterprise.
The cement, chemical and sugar industries developed faster only in the 1930's. There was no focus on the production and development of machine-making industry in India which meant that machines for Indian industries were imported for a very long time.
FACTORS IN THE LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
1. Availability of Raw Material :
It is the major factor affecting the location of the industry. Agrobased industry will be located in agriculture dominating areas where as mineral based-industry will be located in the mineral dominating areas.
2. Power :
Power can be transmitted but those industries which consume large quantities of power are located near the source of power.
3. Labour : Labour intensive industries mostly concentrate in densely populated areas.
4. Transport : Transport system helps in the movement of goods and raw material.
5. Market : Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods and for purchasing raw material. It reduces the cost of transportation.
6. Government Poiicies :
Government activity in planning the future distribution of industries, for reducing regional disparities, elimination of pollution of air and water and for avoiding their heavy clustering in big cities has become an important location factor.
AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
• Textile Industry :
1. It adds about 14 % to the industrial production and about 4 % to the GDP.
2. It provides employment to about 35 million person. Together with allied agriculture sector, it provides employment to over 90 milJion people.
3. It is the only industry which is self-relient from raw material to the highest value added product.
• Manufacturing industries are concerned with the production of goods. These industries convert the raw materials into useful commodities, e.g., sugar cane into sugar.
• The activity that enables man to satisfy his needs and enables him to live in comfort is known as economic activity.
• An Industry employing a large number of labour and high capital investment is grouped under large-scale industry, e.g., textile, cotton textile, jute textile, etc.
• Mass production means production on a very large scale. It adopts Assembly line technique. The industries whose finished products are used as raw material for other industries are called 'basic industries', e.g., Iron and steel industry.
• The raw material and the fuel required by the Iron and Steel industry are - iron ore, coal, limestone and an adequate quantity of water.
• 'Sugar Industry' and' Aluminium Industry' are located near the source of raw materials.
• Diamond cutting and watch-making (Switzerland) industries are largely dependent on the skilful labour.
• The industries need a large amount of water for cooling, washing and mixing chemicals.
• Petrochemicals like viscose, are the raw materials used for producing synthetic fibres.
• Mumbai in Maharashtra is known as the 'cottonpolis' of India because of geographical, economic and political factors.
• India, China, and Japan with Public, Private and Joint sectors are the major sectors of textile industry in the world.
• The major centres of textile industry in India are
(iii) Kanpur and
• Industry indicates an organised human effort (skill) to transform primary goods (raw material) to more useful goods by machines (secondary goods). In other words, Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods.
• The similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California are as follows:
(i) Both are having temperate / moderate climate with the temperatures rarely dropping below 0° C.
(ii) Bangalore and California both are having highest availability of middle and top management talent.
• Sometimes. industries cluster together to take advantage of the products of an industry, which may be used by them as raw materials. Such clusters are known as Industrial regions or complexes.
• Industries on the basis of number of persons employed and capital used by them can be classified in the following ways:
(i) Large-scale industry.
(ii) Small-scale industry and
(iii) Cottage industry.
• Industries are called the basis of economic progress because economic condition of any country is assessed on the basis of her industries.
(i) Industries provide opportunities for employment.
(ii) Industries lay emphasis on ultramodern technology and produce highly successful goods from raw materia!.
(iii) Industries bring good foreign exchange.
• "Joint Sector Industry" is jointly managed by the public sector, i.e., government agencies and private firms, i.e., private sector, e.g., Oil India and Gujarat Alkalies are managed jointly.
• The following are the main points that led to the growth of large-scale Industries:
(i) Large number of workers,
(ii) Heavy capital and
(iii) Favourable location with all modern technology.
• Mineral-based industries are generally located near the source of raw materials or the power stations because :
(i) They derive their raw material from the source of mining.
(ii) They consume large quantities of power.
• Consumer industries are those industries whose goods are directly used by consumers. Industries such as bicycle industry, paper industry and sugar industry are some examples of consumers industries.
• The world has four major Industrial Regions like:
(i) Eastern part of North America,
(ii) Western and Central Europe,
(iii) Eastern Europe and
(iv) Eastern Asia.
• In order to promote industrial development, the government provides certain basic infrastructure facilities such as industrial sheds, roads and electricity to attract industrialists to set up industries in that region.
• The industrial Revolution first took place in Great Britain. It resulted in the growth and development of modern factories by providing modern techniques of machines for high production.
• In India, the Iron and Steel industry is mostly located or installed near the source of raw material.
The major centres of these industries are:
• In the United States, Iron and Steel industry is mostly concentrated in :
(ii) Lake Erie,
(iii) Mid-Atlantic regions and
• The iron and Steel industry of USA gets its supply of raw materials and fuels from :
(i) Appalachian coal field.
(ii) North Michigan limestone field.
• The steel industry is very important for the modern world civilisation because:
(i) It is the foundation for modern machines, equipments and tools.
(ii) Not only this, it also produces useful products like rail, sheets, bars, pipes, etc.
• The major iron ore reserve centres are :
(iii) Australia and
• In India, Iron and Steel industry has developed very well by taking advantage of:
(i) Raw materials found in close proximity.
(ii) Cheap labour.
(ii) Adequate transport and market facilities.
• The major centres of the cotton textile industry in India are:
(i) Gujarat - Ahmedabad, Yadodara and Surat.
(ii) Uttar Pradesh - Kanpur.
(iv) Madhya Pradesh - Dewas, Indore and Ujjain.
• Osaka is known as "Manchester of Japan" because it is the most important textile centre of Japan. The extensive plain around Osaka is especially suitable for the growth of textile mills.
• (i) Ahmedabad had a tradition of spinning and weaving.
(ii) Being surrounded by the cotton-growing region, it has better access to raw cotton and has low cost of living.
(iii) Ahmedabad city has better access to internal markets. All these helped the growth of Ahmedabad over Mumbai.
• Fibres are the raw materials of textile industries. There are two types of fibres:
(i) Natural: These are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen, jute, etc.
(ii) Man-made: These include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.
• The textile industry is divided on the basis of raw materials as :
• Following are the main factors that led to the development of the textile industry in "Osaka city" :
(i) Moist climate,
(ii) Women labour and
(iii) Harbour for transport.
• The cotton textile industry of Osaka has been replaced by other industries like:
(i) Iron and Steel Industry, (ii) Machinery Industry,
(iii) Shipbuilding industry, (iv) Automobiles Industry,
(v) Electrical equipment Industry and (vi) Cement Industry.
• The Silicon Valley is located in West California, (America). It is bordered by the San Francisco Bay on the East,Santa Cruz Mountain on the west and the Coast Range to the South East.
• Due to following factors Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India:
(i) Bangalore is the base of India's space programme.
(ii) It has the highest number of software companies including multinational companies.
(iii) it has been ranked the fourth best "global hub of technological innovation" by United Nations.
• Information Technology and computer industry have developed in Silicon Valley due to the
(i) availability of skilled labour,
(ii) enough capital and
(iii) adequate power supply.
• The old village where Jamshedpur has been built was Sakchi. It was close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits.
• Detroit is famous for the Automobile Industry. It is also known as the motor city and automobile capital of the world.
• TISCO gets iron ore from limestone mine of Orissa and Chattisgarh.
• Niagra Waterworks provide enough power for the industry to Detroit Industrial Centre.
• In Detroit (USA) Iron ore comes from the Lake Superior region.
• Industrial disaster means any sudden mishappening, occurance of sudden hazards or accident.
(i) Industrial disasters or accidents mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
(ii) For instance, 'Bhopal Gas Tragedy' of 3rd December 1984. It was a technical accident followed by the leakage of highly poisonous Methyl Isocyanate Gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide.
• Industrial development to a large extent is affected by the development of infrastructural framework. This includes the development of health, sanitation, water supply, transport, communication, pr.oduction and distribution of electricity and other sources of energy.
• Industries add value to the substances as raw material after being processed is converted into useful goods by different means. This Increases their value in the market.In this way after getting processed, industries increase the economic utility of substances.
• The first 'Digital Electronic Computer' was developed in US in 1946 for military purpose. The emergence of microelectronics, a sub-industry of electronics industry in the 1970s and the 1980s led to the development of "Information Technology".
• Silicon Valley is considered one of the greatest "Science Parks" in the world because:
(i) It contains hu dreds of high tech information technology industries.
(ii) Several large companies such as Intel, Apple Computer, Hewlett-Packard and Sun microsystems are located in the Silicon Valley.
• The industrit:s in which there is greater use of manpower are called labour intensive industries. Skilled and unskilled labour play an important role in these industries, e.g., cotton I textile, jute industries, etc.
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