Download CBSE Class 8 Social Science Constitution Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 8 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 8. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 8 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 8 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 8 Social Science given our website
Constitution Class 8 Social Science Revision Notes
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Constitution in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Constitution Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Social Science Constitution Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
* A constitution signifies independence. Every independent country prepares a Constitution of its own.
* A Constitution lays down the basic structure of the government under which its people are to be governed. It establishes the main organs of the government – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
*A constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, it demarcates the responsibilities of each. It regulates the relationship between the three organs and also with the people.
*A Constitution is a fundamental legal document according to which the government of a country functions.
*A constitution is superior to all the laws of a country. Every law enacted by the governmental machinery, has to be in conformity with the Constitution.
*Laws written in the Constitution, which are also called basic laws, act as the source according to which rules and regulations of government of a country are framed.
* In a democratic country like India, the importance of the Constitution is still more significant. In a democratic government, the citizens participate in the functioning of the government directly or indirectly, government's powers are clearly spelt out and citizens rights are mentioned clearly.
Terms to Remember :-
1. Constitution :- The term constitution comes from a Latin term which mean 'an important law' a constitution is a body of laws through which a country is governed. It determines and specifies the rights of citizen the powers of the government and how the government should function. It defines the relation between the different organs of government and citizen. Almost all the independent countries in the world today where democracy monarchy or any other form of government exists, have its own constitution.
2. Constitution Assembly :- An assembly of people's representative that writes a constitution for a country.
3. Constitutional amendment :- A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.
4. Fundamental Duties :- Duties specified in the constitution which every citizen should fulfil.
5. Fundamental Rights :- Some basic human rights guaranteed by our constitution for the development of the personalities.
6. Preamble :- An introductory statement of the constitution stating its aim and philosophy.
7. Socialism :- System of social organisation in which all factor of production are owned by the government.
8. Reservation Policy :- The policy of keeping a fixed number of jobs or places in school, colleges, parliament state, assemblies etc. for people who are member of scheduled caste, scheduled tribes or other backward classes.
The Indian Constitution
How was it framed ?
The Nehru Report (1928) was the first attempt by Indians to frame a full fledged constitution for their country. The report embodied not only the perspective of the contemporary nationalist opinion but also an outline of a draft constitution for India. The demand for a constitution assembly was for the first time authoritatively conceded by the British Government, though in an indirect way and with important reservation, in what is known as the 'August offer' of 1940.
Cabinet Mission :- With the out break of world war II, the national struggle for freedom in India gathered momentum. In July 1945 a new government came to power in England. Government's intention to convene a constitution making body was announced. The British government sent three of its ministers (Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Pethic Lawrence and Mr. A.V. Alexander) to find a solution to the question of India's Independence. This team of minister was called Cabinet Mission.
The Constituent Assembly :-
*According to the suggestion made by the cabinet Mission elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British-Indian provinces were completed by July August 1946.
* With the independance of India, the constituent assembly became a fully sovereign body. The assembly started working from the 9th December 1946.
* The constituent Assembly had members belonging to different communities and regions of India. There were more than 30 members from scheduled castes as well.
*Anglo-Indian community was represented by Frank Anthony while Parsis were represented by H.P. Modi.
* Constitutional experts like Alladi Krishanswami Aiyar, B.R. Ambedkar, K.M. Munshi were also members of the Assembly.
* Sarojini Naidu and Vijaylakshmi Pandit were important women members.
* Sachidanand Sinha was the first President of the constituent Assembly. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first elected President of the Constituent Assembly. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (also known as the architect of the Indian Constitution) was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting committee.
*The constituent Assembly met for 166 days spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949.
Sources of Constitution of India :-
*Our Indian constitution is wider and unique because it was made by collecting information from many sources like :-
1. Ideals of justice in social, Education, Economic and political – Russian Revolution 1917.
2. Ideals of liberty, Equality and Fraternity – French Revolution 1789.
3. Federal system, office of Governor, Judiciary Public Service commission, Emergency, Administrative details – From Government of India Act-1935.
4. Parliamentary form of Government, Rule of law, legislature, single citizenship, cabinet form of government - British Constitution..
5. Fundamental rights, Independent judiciary, Judicial review, impeachment of President, removal of Supreme Court judges, Vice Presidentialship – USA Constitution.
6. Directive Principle of state policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha, electoral office and method of president election – Irland Government.
7. Federation with strong center, Residuary power with center, appointment of state Governor by centre, advisory/ review of Supreme Court – Canada (Pure federal country)
8. Concurrent list, Freedom of trade, commerce and inter state trade, joint sitting in the parliament – Australia
9. Fundamental duties, Preamble – USSR.
10. Procedure for amendment, election to the Rajya Sabha members – South Africa.
11. Procedure established by law :- Japan.
12. Suspension of fundamental rights during emergency. – Weimer Constitution of Germany.
The Needs for Laws
• Laws are important to regularise the civic life of the people and establish peace and order in the state.
• Laws aim at individual as well as general welfare.
• Murders, robberies, torture, violence, kidnapping are examples of violation of laws. Social evils and customs hamper the progress of the society and do injustice to people. Thus law plays an important and essential role in stopping crime and establishing peace in the society.
Did You Know
• The Dowry Prohibition Act was passed on 1961.
• The Zamindari Abolition Act was passed on 1950, brought end to the possession of land by a few people called Zamindar.
Types of Constitution :-
The constitution may be written, Unwritten, rigid or flexible.
Written constitution :-
1. A constitution in which the fundamental laws of governance are lays down in a formal document. It is the result of conscious effort.
2. It is created by a constituent Assembly. Countries like America, France, China, Russia, Japan, Germany, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. have written constitution.
Unwritten Constitution :-
(i) A constitution in which the fundamental laws of governance are not lays down in a formal document.
(ii) it is not created by any particular Constituent Assembly but depends upon customs and conventions.
(iii) The British Constitution is a classic example of an unwritten constitution.
(iv) It is wrong to believe that unwritten constitution is totally unwritten.
(v) The British constitution has five components of which two are unwritten.
6. The unwritten components are :- (i) The common laws and (ii) the conventions.
The written component are
(i) Statutes passed by the parliament.
(ii) Great charters and other land marks.
(iii) Judicial decisions.
Flexible Constitution :-
• Flexible constitution is the one that can be easily amended and it does not require a special majority for amendment.
• British constitution is an ideal example of a flexible constitution.
Rigid Constitution :-
• A rigid constitution is the one that requires a special procedure for amendment.
• It need special majority for amendments.
• The constitution of the USA is highly rigid.
• The Indian constitution is both flexible and rigid because some of its provision can be amended easily, while many others require difficult methods of amendment.
(i) The Preamble of the constitution outlines the main contours of the Indian Republic and its objectives.
(ii) The Preamble, contains the ideals and basic principles of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble is not a part of the Constitution. It is not enforceable by the court of law. Still the Preamble serves as the guiding light of the Constitution.
(iii) The Preamble remained unchanged till 1976. In 1976, the words 'Socialist', 'Secular', and 'Unity and Integrity of the Nation' were added through 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act.
(iv) Sovereign :- The term Sovereign implies that like other independent countries. India is an independent country and is free to govern itself. It has the power to make its own laws on any matter without foreign interference.
(v) Socialist :- The term socialist and secular were added by the 42nd Amendment (1976). Socialism means being free from social, political and economic exploitation. It has to minimise the gap between the rich and the poor and stop exploitation of the poor.
(vi) Secular :- The word Secular means that the state must not give importance to any particular religion. The citizens are free to have faith in any religion. There is no state religion. All religions must command equal respect and importance from the state.
(vii) Democratic :- The term Democratic implies that the Government is to be formed by the elected representatives of the people. All adult citizen of India vote and elect their representatives to govern the country.
(viii) Republic :- The term Republic implies that the head of the state is an elected person. It also means that India has no place for Monarchy (Kings) or Feudal (Zamindari) system. He/She is elected by the elected members of the Parliament and state legislature. For eg. India, America and France have elected President, But in England King and queen has constitutional Monarchy.
Objective of Indian Constitution :-
The Indian Constitution aim to provide its citizen :-
(i) Social, economic and political justice.
(ii) Freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
(iii) Equality of status and opportunity and
(iv) Fraternity (brotherhood) based on dignity of the people and unity of country.
Features of Indian Constitution :-
The features of our constitution are :-
(i) Written Constitution :- The constitution of India is in a written form. It is the lengthiest constitution of the world. The Indian constitution was adopted in 1950, consisted of 395 articles and 8 schedules. After several amendment the constitution of India present consist of 447 Articles and 12 schedules.
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