CBSE Class 8 Social Science Constitution Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
* A constitution signifies independence. Every independent country prepares a Constitution of its own.
* A Constitution lays down the basic structure of the government under which its people are to be governed. It establishes the main organs of the government – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
*A constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, it demarcates the responsibilities of each. It regulates the relationship between the three organs and also with the people.
*A Constitution is a fundamental legal document according to which the government of a country functions.
*A constitution is superior to all the laws of a country. Every law enacted by the governmental machinery, has to be in conformity with the Constitution.
*Laws written in the Constitution, which are also called basic laws, act as the source according to which rules and regulations of government of a country are framed.
* In a democratic country like India, the importance of the Constitution is still more significant. In a democratic government, the citizens participate in the functioning of the government directly or indirectly, government's powers are clearly spelt out and citizens rights are mentioned clearly.
Terms to Remember :-
1. Constitution :- The term constitution comes from a Latin term which mean 'an important law' a constitution is a body of laws through which a country is governed. It determines and specifies the rights of citizen the powers of the government and how the government should function. It defines the relation between the different organs of government and citizen. Almost all the independent countries in the world today where democracy monarchy or any other form of government exists, have its own constitution.
2. Constitution Assembly :- An assembly of people's representative that writes a constitution for a country.
3. Constitutional amendment :- A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.
4. Fundamental Duties :- Duties specified in the constitution which every citizen should fulfil.
5. Fundamental Rights :- Some basic human rights guaranteed by our constitution for the development of the personalities.
6. Preamble :- An introductory statement of the constitution stating its aim and philosophy.
7. Socialism :- System of social organisation in which all factor of production are owned by the government.
8. Reservation Policy :- The policy of keeping a fixed number of jobs or places in school, colleges, parliament state, assemblies etc. for people who are member of scheduled caste, scheduled tribes or other backward classes.
The Indian Constitution
How was it framed ?
The Nehru Report (1928) was the first attempt by Indians to frame a full fledged constitution for their country. The report embodied not only the perspective of the contemporary nationalist opinion but also an outline of a draft constitution for India. The demand for a constitution assembly was for the first time authoritatively conceded by the British Government, though in an indirect way and with important reservation, in what is known as the 'August offer' of 1940.
Cabinet Mission :- With the out break of world war II, the national struggle for freedom in India gathered momentum. In July 1945 a new government came to power in England. Government's intention to convene a constitution making body was announced. The British government sent three of its ministers (Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Pethic Lawrence and Mr. A.V. Alexander) to find a solution to the question of India's Independence. This
team of minister was called Cabinet Mission.
The Constituent Assembly :-
*According to the suggestion made by the cabinet Mission elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British-Indian provinces were completed by July August 1946.
* With the independance of India, the constituent assembly became a fully sovereign body. The assembly started working from the 9th December 1946.
* The constituent Assembly had members belonging to different communities and regions of India. There were more than 30 members from scheduled castes as well.
*Anglo-Indian community was represented by Frank Anthony while Parsis were represented by H.P. Modi.
* Constitutional experts like Alladi Krishanswami Aiyar, B.R. Ambedkar, K.M. Munshi were also members of the Assembly.
* Sarojini Naidu and Vijaylakshmi Pandit were important women members.
* Sachidanand Sinha was the first President of the constituent Assembly. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first elected President of the Constituent Assembly. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (also known as the architect of the Indian Constitution) was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting committee.
*The constituent Assembly met for 166 days spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949.
Sources of Constitution of India :-
*Our Indian constitution is wider and unique because it was made by collecting information from many sources like :-
1. Ideals of justice in social, Education, Economic and political – Russian Revolution 1917.
2. Ideals of liberty, Equality and Fraternity – French Revolution 1789.
3. Federal system, office of Governor, Judiciary Public Service commission, Emergency, Administrative details – From Government of India Act-1935.
4. Parliamentary form of Government, Rule of law, legislature, single citizenship, cabinet form of government
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