CBSE Class 8 Social Science Rural Life and Society Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
RURAL LIFE AND SOCIETY
NEW WORDS :-
* Absentee Landlords :- Land owners who did not till the lands themselves but rented out their lands to the peasants.
* Agrarian :- Related to agriculture
* Famine :- Situation in which food grains were in deficient supply leading to mass starvations.
* Indigo :- Blue dye obtained from a plant and used in textile industry.
*Land Revenue :- Amount paid to the government by landlords who had been declared owners of cultivable lands.
Permanent Settlement :- The arrangement between the government and the landlords under which the land revenue was fixed irrespective of yield.
Colonial Agrarian Policies – Their effect on Peasants and Landlords :-
Main Objective of the Colonial Agrarian Policies :-
*During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Indian economy was primarily dependent on agriculture. It was the main source of livelihood of the people of India and also a source of revenue
* The East India Company wanted raw materials for their industries in England. it also wanted a lot of revenue to expand their colonies. It, therefore, followed an agrarian policy which served their interests.
Effect of Agrarian Policies :-
1. The agrarian policies benefited the landlords who in general became loyal to the Company.
2. The peasants on the other hand suffered heavily.
BRITISH EFFECT ON THE INDIAN ECONOMY
1. India was transformed into a farming colony of Britain.
2. India provided raw materials to British Industry.
3. India became a big market for British made goods.
*Why did British Introduce Land Revenue Systems :-
(i) To pay for the army needed to expand and consolidate the territories conquered by them.
(ii) To pay for the thousands of Englishment in superior administrative and military positions.
(iii) To pay for the purchase of Indian handicrafts and other goods for exports.
(iv) To pay tribute to the British Government in England.
(v) To pay to the shareholders of the Company.
* The British did not follow a uniform system of land revenue in the entire country.
There were three major systems of land revenue :-
(1) Permanent Settlement of Bengal
(2) Ryotwari System
(3) Mahalwari System
Permanent Settlement of Bengal – Lord Cornwallis (1793)
*Chief features of the system of Permanent Settlement :-
1. The zamindars were recognized as the owners or proprietors of the land.
2. The zamindars could sell their lands and were also given the rights to transfer them.
3. The zamindars acted as the agents of the government for the collection of the revenue from the cultivators.
4. The cultivators became the tenants of the zamindars.
5. The zamindars gave to the government 10th or 11th part of the revenue collected by them from the cultivators.
6. The revenue to be paid by the zamindars was fixed on a permanent basis.
7. The zamindars had to pay the revenue, even if the crops failed for some reason or the other.
The Ryotwari System
*The Ryotwari System was introduced in parts of Madras and Bombay Presidencies. The system derives its name from the word 'Ryot' which means 'cultivator or peasant'. This system had the following features :-
1. The cultivators became the landowners.
2. The land revenue was raised after every 20 to 30 years.
3. The cultivators themselves deposited the land revenue.
Mahalwari System in Punjab and other Areas
* This system derives its meaning from the word Mahal which means a village or an estate. Under this system the land revenue was charged on the village or the estate. An estate was held by a group of families. The land revenue was collected from the village as one unit. It could be collected through the representative of the village.
1. The amount of revenue was revised periodically.
2. The system was prevalent in parts of Central India, Gangetic Valley, North-West Privince and the Punjab.
3. The Mahalwari system did not lead to any progress in agriculture.
Effects of Colonial Agrarian Policies of the East India Company
* Following were the chief evils of the land revenue policy of the East India Company :-
1. Impoverishment (Extreme Poverty) of the Peasants :- The peasants were becoming poor day by day and totally crushed under the triple burden :-
(i) High land revenue,
(ii) Zamindar's heavy demands
(iii) Unscrupulous (very unfair) methods adopted by hte moneylenders.
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