CBSE Class 8 Social Science Resources Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Resources Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.


Human beings have many needs. They have been satisfying their needs from the nature. People in ancient times used to eat meat of wild animals, roots, fruits and flowers. The used to cover their bodies with the hides of animals and bark of trees. Thus, human beings used to utilise the things of nature in the form of resources. All these items, therefore, have utility. With the systematic development of civilisation, the knowledge of human beings went on increasing and along with it, the list of their needs became lengthy. Thus, human beings started utilising numerous things of nature, in the form of resources. All these resources have some value

Resources are regarded as a resource, only if the following condition are at satisfied :
1. It is possible to use it.
2. If a resource is not used, it should be transformed into a useful one.
3. Economic costs of converting a material for resources should be worked out.
However, certain cultural values and social practices, which are of great use to man may not have a cost factor attached to them.

Do You Know
All the useful elements of our environment that satisfy man’s needs and wants are called resources. Time and Technology are two important factors which can change substances into resources. Both fulfill the needs of people. People themselves are a resource. Their ideas led to new discoveries. The discovery of
fire led to cooking while wheel led to the beginning of transport.

Classification of Resources
To understand the characteristics of resources in a better way, we can classify them as follows:

Based on Renewability or Exhaustibility
On the basis of renewability, resources can be grouped into Renewable Resources and Non-Renewable Resources.

1. Renewable Resources: These are the resources, which can be renewed or replenished after their use. These include, air, water, soil, forest, wildlife, solar energy and agricultural products. However, it should be or remembered that original forest cover, original soil and even wildlife with their natural features, can never be replenished to their original form by any human, effort. Human efforts cannot create the variety and diversity found in nature. Solar, wind, water and tidal energies are inexhaustible resources. They are available continuously. The renewable resources are further divided into continuous or flow and biological resources.


2. Non-renewable Resources : These are the resources, which cannot be replenished or renewed after use. For example, minerals and fuels are non-renewable resources like metals are recyclable, but fossil fuels cannot be recycled.

Based on Origin
Resources can be classified into two chief categories based on origin. These two categories are Biotic and-Abiotic resources.

1. Biotic Resources : These are often described as organic resources, which have life. For example, forests, animals, and their products including agricultural products are biotic resources. Fossil fuels like coal, gas and petroleum, which are derived from the remains of the plants and animals, are also included under this category.
2. Abiotic Resource : These are even called inorganic resources or which comprise of an non-living things.
Land, water and rocks constitute abiotic resources.

Based on Ownership

1. Individual Resources : Resources owned by the individuals like grazing grounds and Land owned by a farmer is an example of individual resources. Pasture lands, well and tube welts, houses, plots and factories are examples of individual resources.
2. Community Owned Resources : Resources owned by the community like grazing grounds, ponds, Panchayat ghar, etc., are known as community resources. Other examples are burial or cremation grounds, rivers and land along their banks, public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds, etc. All members of the community can use these resources.
3. Natonal Resources : According to a nation's law, all the resource, belong to the nation. The government, for the construction of roads, canals, railway tracks, etc., can acquire lands of farmers or property owned by residents of urban areas. Land, rivers, mountains water resource resources, forests, wildlife, minerals are some examples of national resources.
4. International Resources: World resources belong to all the inhabitants of the Earth. Open oceans and its resources. like fish, minerals, etc,, are examples of International Resources.

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