CBSE Class 8 Social Science Resources Notes

Download CBSE Class 8 Social Science Resources Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 8 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 8. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 8 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 8 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 8 Social Science given our website

CBSE Class 8 Social Science Resources Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



Human beings have many needs. They have been satisfying their needs from the nature. People in ancient times used to eat meat of wild animals, roots, fruits and flowers. The used to cover their bodies with the hides of animals and bark of trees. Thus, human beings used to utilise the things of nature in the form of resources. All these items, therefore, have utility. With the systematic development of civilisation, the knowledge of human beings went on increasing and along with it, the list of their needs became lengthy. Thus, human beings started utilising numerous things of nature, in the form of resources. All these resources have some value


Resources are regarded as a resource, only if the following condition are at satisfied :

1. It is possible to use it.

2. If a resource is not used, it should be transformed into a useful one.

3. Economic costs of converting a material for resources should be worked out.

However, certain cultural values and social practices, which are of great use to man may not have a cost factor attached to them.

Do You Know

All the useful elements of our environment that satisfy man’s needs and wants are called resources. Time and Technology are two important factors which can change substances into resources. Both fulfill the needs of people. People themselves are a resource. Their ideas led to new discoveries. The discovery of fire led to cooking while wheel led to the beginning of transport.

Classification of Resources

To understand the characteristics of resources in a better way, we can classify them as follows:

Based on Renewability or Exhaustibility

On the basis of renewability, resources can be grouped into Renewable Resources and Non-Renewable Resources.

1. Renewable Resources: These are the resources, which can be renewed or replenished after their use. These include, air, water, soil, forest, wildlife, solar energy and agricultural products. However, it should be or remembered that original forest cover, original soil and even wildlife with their natural features, can never be replenished to their original form by any human, effort. Human efforts cannot create the variety and diversity found in nature. Solar, wind, water and tidal energies are inexhaustible resources. They are available continuously. The renewable resources are further divided into continuous or flow and biological resources.


2. Non-renewable Resources : These are the resources, which cannot be replenished or renewed after use. For example, minerals and fuels are non-renewable resources like metals are recyclable, but fossil fuels cannot be recycled.

Based on Origin

Resources can be classified into two chief categories based on origin. These two categories are Biotic and-Abiotic resources.

1. Biotic Resources : These are often described as organic resources, which have life. For example, forests, animals, and their products including agricultural products are biotic resources. Fossil fuels like coal, gas and petroleum, which are derived from the remains of the plants and animals, are also included under this category.

2. Abiotic Resource : These are even called inorganic resources or which comprise of an non-living things. Land, water and rocks constitute abiotic resources.

Based on Ownership

1. Individual Resources : Resources owned by the individuals like grazing grounds and Land owned by a farmer is an example of individual resources. Pasture lands, well and tube welts, houses, plots and factories are examples of individual resources.

2. Community Owned Resources : Resources owned by the community like grazing grounds, ponds, Panchayat ghar, etc., are known as community resources. Other examples are burial or cremation grounds, rivers and land along their banks, public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds, etc. All members of the community can use these resources.

3. Natonal Resources : According to a nation's law, all the resource, belong to the nation. The government, for the construction of roads, canals, railway tracks, etc., can acquire lands of farmers or property owned by residents of urban areas. Land, rivers, mountains water resource resources, forests, wildlife, minerals are some examples of national resources.

4. International Resources: World resources belong to all the inhabitants of the Earth. Open oceans and its resources. like fish, minerals, etc,, are examples of International Resources.

Based on Usage

Natural Resources : Resources gifted by nature are natural resources, for example, land, soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, etc.

Human Resources : Human resources are the most significant resources of the world. Human resources by using skill and technology are capable of converting available material into productive assets. For instance, only man knows how to generate from tidal energy.

Human-made Resources : Machines, dams, buildings, synthetic materials, etc., are examples of resources Created by human beings.

Based on their Development

On the basis of their development, resource can be classified into two types.

1. Actual Resources : These are some resources whose known. They are being used in the present. For example, coal deposits of Ruhr Valley in Germany, black soil of Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra.

2. Potential Resources : These are those whose entire quantity is not known and they are not being used at present. These are resources of the future. The Uranium found in Ladakh has a very good potential use in the future.

Based on their Distribution

1. Ubiquitous : These are resources which are found everywhere. For example, the air we breathe.

2. Localised : These are. resources found only in certain places. For example, copper and iron ore.


Economic development of a country depends upon :

1. Availability of different resources in the region.

2. The needs and aspirations of the people living in these regions.

3. The skills and technologies possessed by them.

How can resources be productive?

For generating a higher rate of productivity, we must take care of the following points.

1. Technology needs to be used immensely.

2. Resources need to be conserved.

3. International trade is imperative for increase in production.

4. Lastly, there should be minimum wastage, pollution should be controlled and productivity should be sustained.

The following factors lead us to the need for resource planning :

1. Ecosystem Management : The main problem of all type of resoruces is overexploitation and high degree of interference by man in natural ecosystem. For example, trees in forests have fallen beyond the capacity of the forests to replenish. Even forest lands are cleared for human habitation.

2. Evalution of Resources : Our technology for evaluation of Earth's resources is highly advanced today. Even remote sensing technology with the help of satellites is in use. Yet, overexploitation of such resources continues. Evaluation of resources needs to balance demand and supply through proper planning.

3. Finding Alternatives to Existing Resources : Fossil fuels cannot last for long. Alternative sources of energy are already being used which presently account for a small fraction of the total energy needs. We still have to find alternatives to fossil fuels which can replace coal, petroleum and gas.

4. Demand for Resources : The main causes for demand of resources are population growth and consumerism. The population growth is very high in the developing world. Planning of resources to strike a balance between. need for resources by the developed and developing world. It will force the developing countries to bring down their growth rate of population.

5. Pollution : Usage of resources lods to wastes. Pollution arises from the accumulation of these wastes. planning needs to take into consideration on how to deal with these wastes.

In the present context when so many environmental problems are being faced, planning of resources is inevitable. On top of the problem is finding ways of dealing with wastes generated because of resource use.


Resource planning means utilisation of country's resources for different development activities, in accordance with national priorities. Recources planning consists of the following three components :

1. Resource Inventory : It nucludes surveying mapping and measurement of characterist and property of resources. It is important to know the amount, quality and distribution along with their present state of utilisation.

2. Evaluation : In this component information of resource survey is examined against technology, economy, ecology and society to ermine the possibility of development.

3. Development : The this component is concerned with the activities necessary to convert the potential of a resource into a reality and actual use.


There are various methods of planning of resources. These include:

1. Resource Development : Resources Development makes resources fit for human satisfaction. Planning starts from here. It is essential to consider the skills, types of machinery, methods of mining, clearing unwanted materials to make resources available for utilisation by man. Excessive costs, wasteful methods and technology for development of resources need careful planning.

2. Conservation of Resources : The best method of planning of resources means efficient utilisation of resources. Conservation involves sustainable and efficient utilisation of resources. The scientists working in the Regional Research Laboratory at Jammu have helped in conserving many rare Himalayan flowers. The farmers in a village in western Uttar Pradesh made their own contributions to construct a check dam which helped to conserve underground water resources. Their wells now have water throughout the year. Gandhiji was a staunch advocate of conservation of resources. His words about conservation are often "There is enough for everybody's need and not for anybody's greed". In his opinion the root cause for the depletion of resources was the greed and selfishness of india. He was in favour of small scale and cottage industries. He was against large factories producing food on a large scale.


Sustainable development means ‘development should take place with out damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the furture generation.

Sustainable Development is based on certain principles :

* To respect and care all form of life.

* To improve quality of human life.

* To conserve Earth’s vitality and diversity.

* To minimise depletion of natural resources.

* To change attitude towards environment.

* To enable communities to care for their own environment.



1. What is a resource?

2. Name three types of resources.

3. Explain the term natural resources.

4. Name the sources from where we get natural resources.

5. Give two examples of renewable resources.


1. How do resources establish a relationship of a man with his environment?

2. What are biotic and abiotic resources? Give three examples.

3. Why is there a need for resource planning?


1. Classify resources on the basis of their ownership.

2. Why are resources necessary for human beings?


1. Renewable and Non-Renewable resources.

2. Biotic and Abiotic resources.


1. Why are resources distributed unequally over the Earth?

Ans. The distribution of resources depends upon physical factors like climate, terrain and altitude. These factors are not equal over the Earth. Due to this reason, resources are unequally distributed over the Earth.

2. What is resource conservation?

Ans. Misuse and overutilisation of resources may lead to their total exhaustion. Careful use of resources and giving them some extra time to get renewed is called resource conservation. Promoting reusable and recyclable goods, cutting down use of exhaustible resources help in preventing complete exhaustion of natural resources.

3. Why are human resources important?

Ans. Human beings use natural resources to create more resources. Using their knowledge, skill and technology they try to make resources give their best performance. These factors made humans a special resource. Education and health helps people to become a valuable resource. It improves the quality of skills to create more resources. This is called human resource development. Thus, human resources are important.


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