Revision Notes for Class 8 Social Science Human Resources
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Human Resources in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Human Resources Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Social Science Human Resources Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
• Natural resources : They are various useful gifts which are provided by nature like soil, water, minerals etc.
• Census : Official enumeration of population along with certain economic and social statistics in a given teritory, carried on a specific day. It is generally conducted periodically.
• Migration : The movement of people across regions and territories.
• Birth Rate : The number of infants born for every 1000 persons in a year.
• Death Rate : The number of deaths per 1000 persons a year is called death rate.
• Sex Ratio : Number of women per, 1000 of men population.
• Density of population : The average number of persons per unit area.
• Metropolis : A very large city or agglomeration of population in a district or a country and is oftern a chief centre seat of some form of activity administrative, commercial or industrial.
• Natural growth rate of population : Difference between birth rate and death rate.
• Dependency ratio : The ratio between economically working population and the dependent population is known as the dependency ratio.
• Demography : It is the study of the population statistics, trends and changes over a time based on birth rate, death rate and fertility rate.
• Age composition : The number of people in different age groups in a country.
• Occupational structure : It refers to the distribution of country's people according to different occupations.
• Population growth : It is the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time.
• Literate : According to the census 2001, a person aged 7 yrs and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate.
• Adolescence : It is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10-19 years.
Population is the total number of people living in a country at a given point of time. The people, who constitute the population, act as the producers as well as the consumers of goods and services.
• The main objective of studying population is to :
1. Estimating the total manpower available for production.
2. The total amount of goods and services required for their consumption.
• Three major aspects of the population :
1. Population size and distribution : How many people, are there and where they are located ?
2. Population growth and processes of population change : How the population has grown and changedthe time?
3. Characteristics or qualities of the population : Their age, sex-composition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health condition.
• Population size and distribution : Population size and distribution is estimated by census.
Census : It is the process of collection, compilation and publication of information relating to different aspects of people living in a country at a specific time.
India's population as on march 2001 stood at 1.028 million which accounts for 16.7% of the world population. These 1.02 billion people are unevely distributed over our country's vast area of 3.28 million km2, which account for 2.4% of the world area. According to 2001 census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 166 million people is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16% of the country's population sikkim has population of 0.5 million and Lakahdweep has only 60 thousand people. Almost half of India's population lives in five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan the, biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5% of the population of India.
INDIA'S POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY DENSITY
• Population Density : It is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.
• Densely Populated Areas : There are those areas which have population of more than 300 persons per sq. km. The population is dense due to fertile soil and good rainfall or sufficient irrigation facilities. Area - Satluj and Gangetic Plain, Malabar Coastal Plain, Coromandal coast.
• States : Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, west Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.
• Medium Density : These are those areas which have population about 100 - 300 persons per sq. km. Area : Brahmaputra valley, industrial area.
States : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Orissa Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
• Thinly populated : These are those areas which have population less than 100 persons per sq. km. Area : Great Indian Desert, Hills of north eastern states. States : Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya manipur, Mizoram, sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESS OF POPULATION CHANGE
• Population growth : Magnitude and Pace are two important element of population increases.
• Magnitude : It refers to the number of person added each year or each decade to a given population.
• Pace : It refers to the speed or the rate at which the increase take place. It is recorded in percent per year.
Population Growth : It refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a country during a specified period of time. (During the last 10 years).
PROCESS OF POPULATION CHANGE
There are three main processes of change of population, birth rates, death rates and migration.
• Birth rate : It is the number of live births per thousand person in a year.
• Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
• Migration : It is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (with in the country) or international (between the countries).
• Internal Migration : It is that under which people move from one part of the country to other.
• Effects of Internal Migration :
1. Rising population in rural areas.
2. Lack of demand for labour in agriculture.
3. Increased employment opportunities, better education and living standards in Urban areas.
4. Expansion of industrial and service sectors in urban Areas.
• International migration : Movement of people from one country to another is known as international migration.
• Causes of Rapid
1. High Birth Rate
2. Decline in Death Rate
3. Child Marriage
6. Marriage as a Necessity
It refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
• Children (0-14 age group) : They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
• Working age : (15 - 59 years) : They are economically productive and biologically reproduct. They comprises the working population.
• Aged : (above 59 year) : They can be economically productive though they and may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.
It is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.
• Literacy Rates : It is a very important quality of a population. Only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development project.
• Litrate : A person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as litrate.
Literacy rate according to the census 2001
India: 64.84 %
Males: 75.26 %
Females: 53.67 %
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
1. Primary Sector : Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry logging, fishery etc. are collectively known as Primary activities. These are primary because production is carried on with the help of nature.
2. Secondary Sector : Manufacturing industries are known as secondary activities. All manufacturing units like small scale industry large scale industry, construction work etc.
3. Tertiary sector : It is a sector which provides services to both primary as well as secondary sector. It include transport; communication, banking, insurance, public administration etc.
Health does not mean survival only, it concerns physical, mental, economic and social well being of an individual as well. It is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development.
• Improvement in the Health Status :
1. Diseases like small pox and plague have been eradicated. Malaria has been brought under control.
2. The mortality rate, too has been reduced to less than half.
3. Life expectancy has gone upto 61 years in 2001 from a mere 41 years during 1951-61.
4. Government has created an extensive network of community Health centres and Primary Health Centres.
Adolescent are generally grouped in the age group of 10-19 years,. It constitute one fifth of the total population of Inida. They are the most important resources for the future. Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. The adolescent girls have to be sensitised can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them.
• National Population Policy :
1. The government of India initiated the comprehensive family planning programme in 1952.
2. The family welfare programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
3. The national population policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned effort.
• Family welfare programme
1. Provide free and compulsory school education up to 14 years,
2 Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per thousand live births.
3. Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
4. Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable disease.
5. Making family welfare a people centred programme.
NPP 2000 AND ADOLESCENTS
NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.
• Major objectives of the policy
1. To fullfil nutritional requirements
2. Protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.
3. Encouraging delayed marriage and child bearing.
4. Education of adolescents about the risk of unprotected sex.
5. Making controceptive services accessible and affordable.
6. Providing food supplements.
7. Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.
REASON OUT WHY
(i) Why is the quality of people more important than quantity of people?
This statement is quite true that quantity of people has got its own value but it is so upto a certain point. Beyond that the excessive number becomes a liability rather than an asset. Then only the quality of the people matters and not the number. Where man is an asset, he is curse as well. As far as our own country is concerned, out population is becoming a great liability on us. We should seriously think of restricting the number of people and the growth of population and should lay stress on improving the quality of the people by providing them balanced and nutritious food, necessary medical care and technical and professional training. The growth of population should also be checked by making the people aware of the small family norms.
(ii) Why has the number of women per thousand of men been steadly decreasing?
The number of women per thousand men is called sex ratio. In 1901 the ratio between the male and female population was 1000 : 972 but it dropped to 1000 : 929 in 1991. However, in the last decade, it has shown a little increase in ratio from 929 females per 1000 males to 933 females per 1000 males in 2001. However, females are lesser than men per 1000.
This lesser female population in India is due to the following causes :
1. Lesser care of female children as compared to male children.
2. Women are subject to greater risks to their lives especially at the time of child birth.
3. Women are also killed or forced to die by the dowry seekers and sometimes poor parents who cannot afford dowry and let their infant daughter die.
4. Due to illiteracy, they cannot avail of the medical facilities.
(iii) Why is dependency ratio higher in India?
The number of dependent persons per hundred on working persons is called the dependency ratio. In India in 1991, the working population was 55.991 % while the dependent population was 44.1%. The dependency ratio is calculated by dividing dependent population by the active population and multiplying by 100. In this way, the dependency ratio in India in 1991 comes to 78 %. This is quite high as compared to Japan whose dependency ratio is 48.8 %. It means the proportion of dependent population in India is quite higher as compared to Japan.
In India, this dependency ratio is quite higher because of the following reasons :
1. Here percentage of children below the age of 15 is quite high. They form 34.33 % of the total population.
2. Here old men, forming 6.97 % of the total population, also form a part of the dependency population.
The dependency ratio in India can be reduced by lowering the birth rate over a couple of decades so that not much pressure is put on the economically active population and on our limited resources including health and medical care.
(iv) Why West Bengal is more densely populated than Punjab? West Bengal is more densely populated than Punjab. While in Punjab, the density of population is 403 persons
per sq. km that of West Bengal is 767 persons per sq. km. The reasons for the same are the following:
1. While in Punjab, the growth rate declined between 1981 to 1991, in Bengal, however, it increased, thus adding to the density of population in case of Bengal.
2. There is more migration of people from Punjab to other countries as compared to Bengal.
3. The continuous illegal entry of Bangladesh is into West Bengal added to the density of population in Bengal while there is very little entry of people from Pakistan into Punjab.
(v) Why Kerala state is densely populated?
Kerala state is densely populated. Some of the reasons for the same are the following :
1. Kerala state is a part of the West Coastal Plains which are quite levelled and fertile and there is enough of rainfall. As such, there is no scarcity of food in Kerala.
2. Kerala lies on the sea-shore for a long distance as such she earns both in external and internal trade.
(vi) Why is West Bengal the most thickly populated state in India?
Of all the states of India. West Bengal has the highest density of population with 904 persons per sq. km (Census 2001). The reasons for the same are the following :
1. West Bengal receives a fair amount of rainfall. The Ganga river also provides large irrigational facilities.
2. This region is flat and has very fertile alluvial soils which produce in abundance to eat.
3. West Bengal is centre of many agro-based and metal-based industries which provide work to large number of people.
(i) Difference between the Birth Rate and the Death Rate :
The difference between the birth rate and the death rate gives us the growth rate of population of any country in a year. It must be remembered that one main cause of higher growth rate in India is the widening gap between the birth rate and the death rate. No doubt, the birth rate which was 49.2 per thousand in the beginning of the 20th century has come down to 26.1 per thousand at the end of the century. But the death rate declined from 42.6 per thousand to 8.7 per thousand in the same period. It means the birth rate fell at a slower speed than the death rate, hence the increase in the growth rate which is exerting a great pressure on the already depleting resources of India.
(ii) Distinction between the productive population and dependent population
That part of the population which is engaged in productive activities for earning is called the productive population. These people usually fall in the age group of 15-59. By and large women are not engaged in economically productive activities. The percentage of working population in India is 59.7 % (as.in 2001). That part of the population, which is not engaged in any productive activity and is dependent on the working population, is called the dependent population. This part of population includes children below 15 i.e. age group 0-14 and adults of 60 years and above. They comprise 41.3 % of the total population. This percentage is quite high.
(iii) Distinction between population growth and population change :
Population Growth : Population growth is the actual addition in the existing population during a particular period, say a year. It is the difference between the births and deaths during that period., India's current annual increase in population is 1.5 crore which is increasing our population year after year. Population Change : Population change is the result of three main factors of components birth rate, death rate and migration. The population change is the result of difference between the births and deaths in a year plus the migration from one part of the country to the other or from one country to the other.
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