CBSE Class 8 Social Science Human Resources Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Human Resources Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



• Natural resources : They are various useful gifts which are provided by nature like soil, water, minerals etc.
• Census : Official enumeration of population along with certain economic and social statistics in a given teritory, carried on a specific day. It is generally conducted periodically.
• Migration : The movement of people across regions and territories.
• Birth Rate : The number of infants born for every 1000 persons in a year.
• Death Rate : The number of deaths per 1000 persons a year is called death rate.
• Sex Ratio : Number of women per, 1000 of men population.
• Density of population : The average number of persons per unit area.
• Metropolis : A very large city or agglomeration of population in a district or a country and is oftern a chief centre seat of some form of activity administrative, commercial or industrial.
• Natural growth rate of population : Difference between birth rate and death rate.
• Dependency ratio : The ratio between economically working population and the dependent population is known as the dependency ratio.
• Demography : It is the study of the population statistics, trends and changes over a time based on birth rate, death rate and fertility rate.
• Age composition : The number of people in different age groups in a country.
• Occupational structure : It refers to the distribution of country's people according to different occupations.
• Population growth : It is the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time.
• Literate : According to the census 2001, a person aged 7 yrs and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate.
• Adolescence : It is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10-19 years.

Population is the total number of people living in a country at a given point of time. The people, who constitute the population, act as the producers as well as the consumers of goods and services.

• The main objective of studying population is to :
1. Estimating the total manpower available for production.
2. The total amount of goods and services required for their consumption.

• Three major aspects of the population :
1. Population size and distribution : How many people, are there and where they are located ?
2. Population growth and processes of population change : How the population has grown and changedthe time?
3. Characteristics or qualities of the population : Their age, sex-composition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health condition.

• Population size and distribution : Population size and distribution is estimated by census.
Census : It is the process of collection, compilation and publication of information relating to different aspects of people living in a country at a specific time.
India's population as on march 2001 stood at 1.028 million which accounts for 16.7% of the world population. These 1.02 billion people are unevely distributed over our country's vast area of 3.28 million km2, which account for 2.4% of the world area. According to 2001 census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 166 million people is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16% of the country's population sikkim has population of 0.5 million and Lakahdweep has only 60 thousand people. Almost half of India's population lives in five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan the, biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5% of the population of India.


• Population Density : It is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.
• Densely Populated Areas : There are those areas which have population of more than 300 persons per sq. km. The population is dense due to fertile soil and good rainfall or sufficient irrigation facilities. Area - Satluj and Gangetic Plain, Malabar Coastal Plain, Coromandal coast.
• States : Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, west Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.
• Medium Density : These are those areas which have population about 100 - 300 persons per sq. km. Area : Brahmaputra valley, industrial area.
States : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Orissa Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
• Thinly populated : These are those areas which have population less than 100 persons per sq. km. Area : Great Indian Desert, Hills of north eastern states. States : Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya manipur, Mizoram, sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.


• Population growth : Magnitude and Pace are two important element of population increases.
• Magnitude : It refers to the number of person added each year or each decade to a given population.
• Pace : It refers to the speed or the rate at which the increase take place. It is recorded in percent per year.
Population Growth : It refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a country during a specified period of time. (During the last 10 years).

There are three main processes of change of population, birth rates, death rates and migration.
• Birth rate : It is the number of live births per thousand person in a year.
• Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
• Migration : It is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (with in the country) or international (between the countries).
• Internal Migration : It is that under which people move from one part of the country to other.
• Effects of Internal Migration :
1. Rising population in rural areas.
2. Lack of demand for labour in agriculture.
3. Increased employment opportunities, better education and living standards in Urban areas.
4. Expansion of industrial and service sectors in urban Areas.

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