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Revision Notes for Class 8 Social Science India After Independence
Class 8 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for India After Independence in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
India After Independence Notes Class 8 Social Science
CBSE Class 8 Civics - India after Independence. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
Ques1) Mention the challenges faced by independent India.
Ans.1. Framing a new constitution for India
2. Integration of states into the Indian union.
3. Planning for development of nation (5year plan).
4. To develop an independent foreign policy for country.
Ques2) When was the Indian constitution adopted and what were its features?
Ans. The Indian constitution was adopted on 26th January1950. Features of the Indian Constitution:
1. Adoption of Universal Adult Franchise:- It adopted universal adult franchise. According to this Indians above the age of 21 would be allowed to vote in state and national elections.
2. Equality to all citizens:- It guaranteed equality before the law to all citizens, regardless of their caste or religiousaffiliation. All the people of different religious would be given the same opportunities when it come to seeking jobs in government or the private sector, the same rights before the law. 3. Granting special privilege to SC and ST:-It offered privileges for the poorest and most disadvantaged Indians.
4. Abolition of Untouchability:-The practice of untouchability was abolished. The Hindu temples were open to all including the untouchables.
5. Reservation of seats in Govt offices:-Constituent Assembly recommended that a certain percentage of seats in legislatures as well as jobs in govt. be reserved for members of the lowest castes.
Ques3) What were the problems that the newly independence nation of India faced?
Ans. The three problems are:-
* As a result of partition, 8 million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan.
* These people had to be found homes and jobs.
* Then there was the problem of princely states, almost 500 of them, each ruled by a maharaja or a Nawaz each of whom had to be persuaded to join the new nation.
* India’s population in 1947 was large 345 million.
* It was also divided there were division between high castes and low caste between majority Hindu community and Indian who practiced different faiths.
* The citizens of this land spoke different languages, wore many different kinds of dress, ate different kinds of food and practiced different profession.
* It was difficult to make them live together in one nation state.
* At independence, a vast majority of Indian lived in the village farmers and peasants depended on monsoon for their survival.
* In the cities, crowded slums were occupied by factory workers who had little access to education or health care.
* New nation had to lift its masses out of poverty by increasing the productivity of agriculture and by promoting new job-creating industries.
Ques4. What was the role of Planning Commission?
1. In 1950, the govt. set up a planning commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development.
2. There was a broad agreement on what was called “mixed economy” model. Here both the state and the private sector would play important and complimentary roles in increasing production and generating jobs.
3. These roles were to be- which industries should be initiated by the state and which by the market how to achieve a balance between diff. religions and states – was to be defined by the planning commission.
Q5. What did Dr. Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality?
Ans. Dr. Ambedkar meant that in politics everybody regardless gender, class and education will have right to vote and everybody will be equal but in social and economic life there would be great difference between high castes and low castes, rich and poor ; Hindu communities and Indian who practiced different faiths. Rich people will live in multi – storied buildings and poor will live in villages.
Q6. After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country in linguistic lines?
1. Back in 1920s, the INC – the main party had promised that once the country won Independence each major linguistic group would have its own provinces.
2. However, after independence the congress didn’t take any steps to honour their promise. That the congress leaders would now go back on their promise created great disappointment.
3. The Kannada speakers, the Marathi speakers, had all looked forward to having theirs own state. The strongest protests however came from Telugu speaking districts of what was Madras presidency.
Q7. Give reasons why English continued to be used in India after Independence.
* Many members believed that the English language should leave India with the British rulers. Its place, they argued should be taken by Hindi.
* But those who did not speak Hindi (TT Krishnamachari) conveyed a warning on behalf of the people of the South, some of whom were threatened to separate from India if Hindi was imposed on them.
* A compromise was finally arrived at: namely, that while Hindi would be the official language of India, English would be used in courts, the services and communications between one state and another.
Q8. How was Economic development of India visualized in the early decades after Independence?
* In 1956, the second five year plan was formulated. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel and on the building of large dams.
* These sectors would be under the control of the state. This focus on heavy industry, and the effort at state regulation of the economy was to guide economic policies for the next few decades.
* This approach had many strong supporters but also some vocal critics.
* Some felt that it had put inadequate emphasis on agriculture.
* Others argued it had neglected primary education still others believed that it had not taking account of environmental implications of economic policies.
Q9. What is meant by ‘Universal Adult Franchise’?
Ans. Universal Adult Franchise meant that everybody above the age of 18 regardless any caste, class, religion, gender and race can have a right to vote.
Q10. What was the debate in the constitution Assembly over the issue of linguistic states? Finally, what was the compromise arriving at?
1. The congress leaders promised before the independence that after the independence each linguistic group would have its own province but this didn’t happen.
2. There were many bandhs and hartals by the Kannada, Malayalam and Marathi speakers for the formation of new provinces.
3. Potti Sriramulu fasted for 58 days and on 15 Dec. 1952 he died. This led to the formation of Andhra on 1st Oct 1953.
* After the formation of Andhra, a states Reorganization commission was set up, which submitted a report in 1956 recommending the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers rash. So finally, Bombay was formed in 1960 forming the separation of Marathi and Gujarati speakers.
* In 1966, Punjab was also divided into Punjab and Haryana.
Q11. Do you think that the tasks before the nation at the time of freedom have been completed? Give your comments.
Ans. No because of the following reasons:
1. Despite constitutional guarantees, the untouchables or, as they are now referred to, the Dalit’s face violence and discrimination.
2. In many parts of India they are not allowed access to water source,temples, parks and other public places.
3. There have been clutches between different religious groups and states.
4. The gulf between the rich and poor has grown over the years.
5. Some parts of India and some group of Indians have benefited a great deal from Economic Development.
6. They live in large houses and dine in expensive restaurants, send their children to private school & take expensive foreign holidays.
7. At the same time many others continued to live below poverty line. Housed in urban area’s slums or living in remote villages on land that yield little, they can’t afford to send their children to school.
Q12. Who was appointed as Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?
Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Q13. Write a short note on India’s foreign policy.
1. India gained freedom after the Second World War.
2. A new international body – The United Nations was formed in 1945.
3. At this time colonial empires were collapsing and many countries were attaining independence.
4. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was also the foreign minister of India, developed free Indian’s foreign policy in this context.
5. Non alignment formed the bedrock of this foreign policy.
6. This was also the period when the cold war emerged, that is, power rallies and conflicts between the USA and USSR with both countries creating of military alliances.
7. The non –aligned movement urged countries not to join either of the two major – alliance.
8. Non aligned countries such as India played an active role in mediating between the American and Soviet Alliances.
9. They tried to prevent war by taking more stand against war.
10. However, many non- aligned countries including India got involved in wars.
Q14. After Independence why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
Ans. India had been divided on the basis of religion: despite the wishes and efforts of Gandhi, freedom had come not to one nation but to two. As a result of the partition of India, more than a million people had been killed in riots between Hindu & Muslims.
Q15) What were the major objectives of new nation?
1. Lifting India and Indians out of poverty by building a modern technical and industrial base.
2. In 1950, the planning commission was set up to help design suitable policies for economic development.
3. In 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was formulated.
4. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams.
5. These sectors would be under the control of the State.
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