CBSE Class 8 History Modernization in world. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
- History is a continuous flow of event from the beginning to the end and as such it is very difficult to divide into water tight compartment.
- History has also been divided into 3 periods – Ancient, Medieval and Modern period.
Meaning of Modern Period:-
- Modern period in Europe began in 15th century whereas, India's modern period began in 18th century.
- Modern period includes industrialisation, urbanisation, development in the means of transport and communication.
- Development of democratic political systems uniform laws, widespread literacy & large scale migration of people in search of occupations.
Characteristics of modern Age:-
- New development in science, arts, philosophy, history.
- Revival of urban life.
- Development of trade, banking.
- Formation of Nations states.
- Achievements in vernacular literature, design, art and architecture.
Events that helped coming of modern Age in the world
1. Geographical explorations & Discoveries:-
Explorations due to 14 & 15th centuries led to the discovery of new sea routes.
Discovery of new continents of America, Africa and Asia.
Accumulation of wealth trade gave rise to banking. This in turn led to emergence of a new class of entrepreneurs. They invested the money in new enterprises and manufacturing units.
3. Renaissance and Reformation:-The two movements that took place in medieval period they provided the beginning of modern age.
4. New Inventions:- Many invention like printing, sailing instruments, astronomical apparatus like telescope & the discoveries that followed became messengers of new ideas.
5. Nation states:- These were political institutions, the foundations were laid in the late medieval period but carried forward that finally led to growth of modern period.
Conclusion:- All the above & other developments that took place in medieval period proceeded gradually & lay the foundations of modern period.
Europe – Modern Period
Beginning of the Modern Period in Europe (15th Century)
Factors that led to modernization in Europe:-
1. Development of trade:- Trade between Europeans & Arabs led to the rise of rich merchants, with whose support many Europeans rulers established strong states.
2. Urbanization:- Trade helped in growth of large cities with modern infrastructure such as transport.
3. Development of New Ideas:- Cities became the centre of secular learning which developed the spirit of questioning, reasoning.
4. Development of scientific inventions:- Invention of press – led to the spread of ideas – people began to take new interest in different aspect of human life – Humanism.
Inventing of mariner's compass, quadrant and Astrolabe.
Improvement in ship building and cartography (map-making) – use of gun powder.
5. Discovery of New sea routes:- New lands were discovered, new trade products & trade settlements were setup in various parts of Asia, Africa & Latin America.
6. Growth of trade:-By the end of 16th century, European made huge profits – Even the rulers sponsored the traders and shared profits in return.
Establishment of English East India Company in 1600.
Dutch East India Company in 1602 and French East India Company in 1664.
7. Development of Colonies & Colonisation:- Gradually, European countries established their political control over the large areas of trade, this came to be known as colonies and process of acquiring colonies came to be known as colonisation.
Great changes occurred in the industry in the midst of 18th century – These tremendous changes in industry are collectively known as Industrial revolution.
Industrial Revolution came in England between 1760 and 1825. It then spread to Belgium, France, and Germany Italy etc.
The revolution brought many social, economic & political changes in England.
Industrial Revolution led to development of roads, transport communication, railways, steam ship, expansion of trade & Industries.
Modern Period in India (18th Century)
In India, the modern period began in the mid-18th century. Around the same time, the industrial revolution began in England.
Disintegration of Mughal Empire:-
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. The later Mughals were.
1. Bahadur Shah I (1707–1712)
2. Jahandar Shah Farrukh Siyar (1712–1719)
3. Muhammed Shah (1720–1748)
4. Ahmad Shah (1748–1754)
5. Alamgir II (1754–1759)
6. Shah Alam II (1754–1759)
7. Akbar II (1806–1837)
8. Bahadur Shah Zafar (1837–1858)
Causes for Downfall of Mughal Empire
Disintegration of Mughal Empire
1. Aurangzeb's Policies: - Large sections of people turned unfriendly due to Aurangzeb's religious policies.
2. War of succession: - The Mughals did not have clear rules of succession. This resulted in bloody wards within the family and helped holes to hatch conspiracies.
3. Weak Central Authority: - Aurangzeb's successors were all weak and incapable rulers under them, central authority weakened. Poor defence attracted invaders.
4. Oppression & Poor administration:-
Heavy land revenues demands accompanied by rigid collection by oppressive and corrupt Mughal officers resulted in frequent peasant rebellions.
5. Rise of Europeans: - With the decline of Mughal power, the European trading companies began to assert themselves. They gradually assumed control over interval trade and even annexed territories.
Even Marathas were strong rivals of Mughals. The Marathas emerged as most powerful after the death of Aurangzeb.
Shivaji was the founder of Maratha kingdom and soon there was rise of Peshwas (Chief Minister)
Balaji Vishwanath (1713–1720)
Baji Rao (1720–1740)
Balaji Baji Rao (1740–1761)
Finally there was third battle of Panipat in 1761 in which Marathas were the failures and Britain conquered India.
Causes for downfall of Marathas:-
1. Lack of Unity: - Mutual Rivalries & conflicts between the rulers.
2. No Centralized Power: - There was absence of strong central authority to coordinate the empire.
3. Target of Marathas was collection of Revenues: - The Marathas conquered the territories but did not do anything for the welfare of people their only aim was collection of revenue.
4. Lack of Modern Army: - They failed to develop a modern army and to adopt modern techniques of warfare.
5. Trade and technology was not welcomed.
6. The defeat in the 3rd battle of Panipat gave a severe blow to the power of Marathas.
Source of Modern PERIOD:-
1. Archival records / On written Records / Primary Records:-
Written Records / Secondary Records
These writings illumine political, administration constitutional economic, social cultural & religious aspects of Indian history right from early day of British settlement in India till 1947.
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