CBSE Class 8 Social Science Minerals and Energy Resources Notes.v

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Minerals and Energy Resources Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



• Minerals Natural inorganic substances, which consist of one or more elements.
• Ductility : It is the ability of a metal to be drawn into thin wire without breaking.
• Smelting : The process of separating of metals from their ores by the use of heat.
• Mining : Extracting commercially valuable minerals from the earth.
• Quarrying : Mining of ores from the surface of the land.
• Shaft Mining : Mining of ores at great depths below the ground.
• Open Cast Mining : Mining of ores from shallow depth by removing the overlying rocks.
• Recycling : Using discarded materials once again.
• Mineral Fuels (fossil) : Non-metallic minerals used as power resources or fuel such as coal and petroleum.
• Drilling : The process of digging wells and extracting mineral oil.
• Grid : Transmission of electricity through network of power lines.
• Fossils : Decomposed marine creatures, minute plants, and animals buried and sedimented millions of years ago.
• Reservoir Rocks : The rocks that contain large deposits of oil and gas.
• Rock : Exposed hard substance of the lithosphere is known as the rock. It consists of one or more minerals but with no definite mineral composition.
• Metallic Minerals : Metallic minerals contain metals and are good conductors of heat and electricity.

Metals have the characteristics of shine and lustre.

• Non-Metallic Minerals : Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals and are bad conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals lack shine and lustre.
• Robber Industry : The extraction of mineral resources from the earth is called ‘Robber Industry’. It is called so because indirectly the planet is getting robbed of its mineral resources.
• Conventional Sources : Conventional sources of energy are those sources which have been in use for quite sometime and got exhausted. For example–coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
• Non-Conventional Sources of Energy : Non-conventional sources of energy are replenishable in nature. They are a result of progress in the field of science and technology. Solar, wind tidal, geo-thermal energy are the examples of non-conventional sources of energy
• Black Gold : Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold.
• CNG : It signifies Compressed Natural Gas. It is Eco-friendly automobile fuel. It causes less pollution.
• Biogas : It is a fuel for cooking and lighting obtained from organic waste of dead plants and animal material.

Fact File
* Salt and graphite are also treated as minerals.
* All rock minerals are rocks but all rocks are not minerals.
*Sometimes rock looks blue because its contains copper minerals. There is no well known minerals in Switzerland.
*The rarest available diamond is the green diamond.
*Petroleum is the combination of two Latin words
*Petra means – Rock and
*Oleum means – Oil.
*The first country to develop hydroelectricity was Norway.
* Scotland is the site of the first world’s solar and wind powered bus shelter.

Mineral : A naturally occuring substance that has a definite chemical compocition is called Mineral.

Importance of Minerals :
• Mineral are not evenly distributed
• Some minerals are formed in area which are not earily accessible such that the Artic Ocean bed and Antarctica.
• Mineral can be identified on its basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness, and chemical properly.



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