CBSE Class 8 Social Science Parliamentary Government and Executive Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Parliamentary Government and Executive Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT AND EXECUTIVE

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF PARLIAMENT

1. Legislative Powers :- The Parliament has wide powers in the field of Legislation. It can legislate on those subjects which have been given in the Union List. Besides, Parliament can make laws on those subjects which have been given in the concurrent list. If there is any controversy, the law made by the parliament will prevail.
2. Financial Powers :- Parliament Controls national finances. The annual budget is passed by the Parliament. No tax can be levied by the government without the approval of Parliament. Government cannot spend any money without getting parliament's sanction for it.
3. Control over the Executive :- Parliaments all over the world can criticise and exercise some control over those who run the government. In those countries which have adopted parliamentary form of government, the Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament and remains in office as long as it enjoys its confidence. In India, the ministry remains in office as long as parliament has confidence in it. If the parliament loses confidence in the council of ministers the government, including the Prime Minister, has to resign.
4. Amendment of the Constitution :- In India a part of the constitution can be amended by the Parliament alone. For the remaining portion, its ratification by at least fifty percent states is required.
5. Judicial Powers :- Parliament enjoy certain judicial powers also. it can remove the President from office by impeachment. It is also empowered to remove the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. it can take action against any member for violating the discipline of the House.
6. Electoral Powers :- Members of Parliament take part in the election of the President and Vice-President. Speaker of Lok Sabha is also elected by the members of Lok Sabha.

MUTUAL RELATION BETWEEN LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
Indian Parliament is a Bicameral legislature i.e. it consists of two Houses known as Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
1. Passing of Ordinary Laws :- Ordinary bills can be introduced in either house and needs to be passed by both the houses, before it is sent for the approval of the president. If there is a difference of opinion between the two houses for passing a bill, the decision is taken in a joint session of both the houses.
2. Passing of Money Bills :- Money bills or budget can be introduced only in Lok Sabha. If Lok Sabha passes the budget or any money bill, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it, it can only delay if for 14 days.
3. Control Over the Executive :- The Council of Ministers remains in office as long as it enjoys majority in Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha enjoy the power to pass a vote of no confidence against the majority.
4. Special powers of Rajya Sabha :-
(i) It can declare any 'state subject' as of national importance.
(ii) Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution for the establishment of new All India Administrative Service.

POLITICAL EXECUTIVE
Executive is that organ of the government which enforces (executes) the laws passed by the legislature and runs the administration according to those laws. It stands for all those functionaries that run the administration.
It includes Head of the State (President), Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers and all the civil servants.

PRIME MINISTER AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

• The Prime Ministers is appointed by the President and other ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
• The Prime Minister prepares a list of other ministers and they are formally appointed by the President.
• The President cannot appoint any Minister against the wishes of the Prime Minister.
• The Number of ministers cannot exceed 15 percent of the strength of Lok Sabha i.e., it cannot exceed 82 members.
Cabinet and Council of Ministers :- Normally the cabinet and the Council of Ministers are understood to be same body, but there is a difference between the two. In actual practice, there are three categories of ministers :
(i) Cabinet Ministers
(ii) Ministers of State and
(iii) Deputy Ministers
The Constitution does not prescibe any qualification for holding the office of a minister. It only says that a minister must be a member of either house of Parliament. If a non-member is made a minister, he must get a seat in either house of Parliament within six months, otherwise he will cease to be minister at the expiry of six months.

TENURE
The tenure of Council of Ministers is not fixed. It remains in office as long as it enjoys the support of majority in House of the People. When it loses that support, it has to resign.

Principle of Collective Responsibility :- One of the important features of Parliamentary Government (Cabinet Government) is the principle of collective responsibility. It means that the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament. If the House of the People passes a vote of no-confidence against the entire Council of Ministers and in that case the entire Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister has to resign. The ministers swim or sink together.

Function of the Council of Ministers :- The most important function of the Council of Ministers is the formation of policy –internal as well as external – of the country. The Council of Ministers runs the administration of the country in accordance with that policy. The bills passed by ministers are always passed by the Parliament because of the majority support they enjoy. The annual budget of the Central Government is prepared by the Council of Ministers. After being approved by the Council of Ministers, it is put before the Parliament for its approval. All the appointments of key officials of the Government are made by the President on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

THE PRIME MINISTER

APPOINTMENT
According to Constitution, the prime Minister ia appointed by the president. He appoints only that person as Prime Minister who is the leader of the party or coalition of parties having an absolute majority in house of the People.

TENURE
According to the Constitution, the Prime Minister holds office during the pleasure of the President. In actual practice, the Prime Minister remains in office during the pleasure of Lok Sabha. As long as he enjoys the support of majority in Lok Sabha, the President cannot remove him

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