CBSE Class 8 Social Science Craft and Industries Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
CRAFT AND INDUSTRIES
ECONOMIC DRAIN OF INDIA
After the Battle of Plassey, British got the right to collect the taxes from Bengal and it utilized earnings from taxes to buy Indian goods. Thus, began the process of drain of India's wealth, India witnessed a drain of wealth in the 18th and 19th centuries through trade with East India Company and the various charges imposed by it on the Indians. During the 19th century, two simultaneous process took place– Industrialisation of Britain and deindustrialisation
The process of disruption of traditional Indian crafts and decline in national income has been referred to as deindustrialisation of Indian Economy.
DECLINE OF TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIES
The decline of traditional industries in India was considered invitable by the British officials as part of the process of modernisation as it had happened in the West. In England, the suffering caused by the decline of handicrafts was soon accompanied by greater employment opportunities and income generating effect of factory industries. In colonial India, the artisans were made to bear the burden of development in a country six thousand miles away, since the growth of Indian factories was non-existent before the 1850's and 1860's and painfully slow even afterwards. The only choice left for craftsmen and artisans was to turn to agriculture.
The gradual destruction of rural crafts broke up the union between agriculture and domestic industry in the countryside and this in turn led to the destruction of the self-sufficient village economy. On one hand, hundreds of peasants who had supplemented their income by part time spinning and weaving now had to rely overwhelmingly on cultivation. On the other hand, hundreds of rural artisans lost their traditional source of livelihood and became agricultural labourers. This increasing pressure on agriculture was one of the major causes of extreme poverty of India under British rule. thus, the process of industrialisation of Britain was accompanied by deindustrialisation of India.
However, peasant crafts, which were practised as a subsidiary occupation during the lean agricultural season, using locally available cheap raw materials such as basket weaving and craftwork were immune to competition from machine made foreign goods. Minor manufacturers in villages like potters, blacksmiths etc. were also not ,much affected.
The industrial Revolution of Europe coupled with high import duties and other restrictions imposed on the Indian goods in Britain and other European countries during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries wiped out the market for Indian artisans in Europe because the mass production in the new English factories made it impossible for Indian artisan's products to compete with factory products.
Till 1813, Indian industry, especially the textile industry, was adversely affected in two ways. Firstly, the company reduced the weavers to the status of indentured labour, by forcing them to take an advance from the company. In 1789, for example, the weavers were forced to pay a penalty of 35% on the advance taken if they defaulted in supplying goods. Secondly, in 1813, the British parliament imposed an increased consolidated duty on consumption of calicoes and muslins in Britain.
Due to the discriminatory colonial economic policy, India was reduced almost totally to the status of an exporter of raw or processed agricultural goods. It meant that there was a reversal of roles for India and England. India ceased being an exporter of cotton cloth and became an importer of cloth and yarn, while England stopped importing cloth from India and acquired an export market of that commodity in India.
WEAVERS AND WEAVING TECHNIQUES :-
From the medieval times till the nineteenth century India's skilled weavers had been making use of the loom for weaving clothes and the spinning wheel or the charkha for cleaning cotton and spinning yarn. The spinners sold their yarns to the weaver.
Weavers lived in weaving villages as a closely knit community because it helped them to bargain better with merchants and later with company officials. Most weavers owned (and worked in) one loom but some could own two to five looms. Head weavers represented their weaving villages with foreign agents.
Indigo, madder, turmeric and saffron were the most common plants used to dye the cloth.
MODERN INDUSTRIES IN INDIA :-
The second half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a few modern industries in India. These were mostly owned and controlled by the British companies. Industrialisation on a large scale, however, occurred only after India's independence. Tea, introduced in the nineteenth century, went on to become the biggest plantation industry. Coffee, cinchona and rubber were the other items of plantation industry which found a world widemarket.
However, it was the British capital which monopolised these till the end of British rule in India.
The machine industries began in the second half of the nineteenth century. Of these, the most important ones were the cotton and jute industries. Textile industry made a steady progress and just before the First World War, India ranked fourth among the leading textile producers of the world. While most of jute mills were owned by the British, a number of textile mills were owned by Indians too. Cotton mills were mostly set up at Ahmedabad, Bombay and Madras.
The first cotton mill was set up in 1853, in Bombay. They produced cotton yarn for the cottage industries of India. Despite stiff competition from England and later Japan, Indian cotton industry continued to develop. The modern industries included iron and steel, cement, chemical and power which are also required for other industries.
Iron and steel industry in India did not have a great beginning. However, under Jamshedji Tata it took the shape of the famous Tata Iron and Steel Company. Iron industry was built up in India mainly through Indian skills, capital and enterprise.
The cement, chemical and sugar industries developed faster only in the 1930's. There was no focus on the production and development of machine-making industry in India which meant that machines for Indian industries were imported for a very long time.
REVOLT OF 1857
EARLY REVOLTS OR MINOR REVOLTS
The British rule angered the people in every part of the country. In the process of conquest, the British not only enraged the rulers whose kingdoms were annexed and their nobles, but also a large number of other people. There were Number of revolts between 1765 and 1856 in different parts of the country. Many of these were revolts by Peasants and Tribals and also by Soldiers. There were others led by dispossessed rulers and Zamindars
Some Minor Revolts before the Revolt of 1857 :-
(i) The first major revolt in Bengal was led by Sanyasis and Fakirs and spread to many areas of eastern India. Most of these rebels were peasants who formed their armies.
(ii) There were a number of tribal revolts during this period, the revolts of the Bhils in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, Kols in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Gonds and Khonds in Orissa, Kolis in Maharashtra, Mers in Rajasthan.
(iii) From 1795 to 1805, an anti-British rebellion broke out in southern parts of the country. The rebellion was led by the Zamindars, or Poligars.
(iv) There were mutinies by the sepoys of the Company's army, Vellore Mutiny in 1806 and the Barrackpore Mutinty in 1824. The mutiny was brutally suppressed and hundreds of sepoys were sentenced to death.
(v) Another powerful revolt during this period was that of the Wahabis, the followers of a Muslim sect founded by Sayyid Ahmad Barehvi. They urged the people to join in a holy war to overthrow the British rule. The anti-British activities of the Wahabis continued from 1830 till after the revolt of 1857. Most of
these revolts were, however, localized occurrences. Even though it took the British a long time to suppress some of them, they did not pose a serious danger to the British rule in India.
CAUSES OF THE REVOLT OF 1857
(i) Political causes (ii) Social and economic causes (iii) Religious causes (iv) Military causes (v) Immediate causes
*Political Causes : The causes of discontent among the Indian rulers were as follows:
(i) The policy of conquest pursued by the British had created unrest among many rulers, and chiefs.
(ii) The strict enforcement of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse made people angry
(iii) The annexation of Oudh and the Carnatic kindgom, on grounds of misgovernment, was greatly resented,
(iv) The Mughal Emperor himself was told that his successors would not be recognised as kings and he had to leave the historic Red Fort.
These actions of British created unrest among the ruling families who had lost their power and put fear in others that a similar fate awaited them.
*Social and economic Causes
(i) British started interfering in the social and religious customs like the abolition of the practice of Sati, widow remarriage, conversion of Hindu into Christians and the promotion of western education were considered to be damaging the fabric of the traditional Indian society.