CBSE Class 8 Social Science Colonialism and Tribal Societies Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science Colonialism and Tribal Societies Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



* Anthropology :- Study of human societies and customs.
* Fortress :- A small fort
* Geology :- Science related to earth's crust.
* Rebellion :- Organized open resistance of authority
Tribe :- Subdivision of a race of people

 Meaning of a Tribe :-
A tribe is a group of people having certain common traditional characteristics. The characteristics are :-
* Every tribe has a particular name, for example, Gonds, Ahoms, Santhals, Goaros, Khasi, etc.

 Characteristics of Tribes :-
1. Members of a tribe live in the same geographical area.
2. Members of atribe have strong emotional ties.
3. Members of a tribe speak a common language and dialect.
4. Members of a tribe follow same rules regarding marriage and occupation.
5. Members of atribe have certain traditional restrictions.
6. Tribal people in general are non-vegetarian.

Different forms of Tribal Societies :-
(i) Hunters and food collectors.
(ii) Cattle Breeders
(iii) Cultivation
(iv) Factory workers

General Living Conditions of Tribes :-
1. They are very backward.
2. Majority of them depend on gathering food from the forests, breeding cattle and hunting.
3. They live in scarcity.
4. They are very poor and mostly in debt.

Social Problems :-
1. Most tribes practise what may be called reverse dowry. The male partner has to pay the bride's father.
2. Child marriages are common.
3. Tribal culture has been on the decline.
4. Tribal people face problems of communication when they come in contact with other people.

Tribal Development in India :- Important Steps

* Provisions in the Constitution for the welfare of tribal people.
* Reservations in Parliament and State Assemblies.
*Reservation in jobs.

Tribal Revolts at a Glance :-
*The peasants' and tribal revolts began in the late eighteenth century and were frequent throughout the nineteenth century. Among first was the Sanyasi Rebellion (1770), when as a result of a devastating famine, a large number of 'sanyasis' and 'fakirs', along with many village artisans – including the severely exploited silk weavers of bengal – and thousands of unemployed soldiers from the Mughal army, rebelled and fought against the British.
* In 1820–21, the Ho tribal peasants of Chhotanagpur in Bihar rose twice against the British rulers, the local money leaders and zamindars.
*The Oraons–another tribal community – rebelled in the years 1820, 1832 and again in 1890.
* To quell the ferocious Kol revolt of 1831–32, British troops were deployed from as far off places as calcutta, Danapur and Benaras.
* The Santhal uprising of 1855–57 was one of most widespread. Covering the states of Bihar, Orissa and Bengal, the Santhals were joined on many occasions by poor and landless peasants of lower castes.
* As many as 20,000 rebels ere massacred in a final battle against the British. The heoic struggle by the Mundas of Ranchi (1895) inspired folkloric visions of a new society.

British Policies towards Tribes :-
*The rule of the East India Company exercised a great influence on the economics, social and peaceful lives of the tribal people. The policies of the Company were formed and implemented in such a manner that the tribal people considered it a great danger to their very existence. The economic policies encouraged the zamindars, money-lenders and merchants to exploit the tribal people.

Major causes of Tribal Revolts :-
1. The East India Company introduced a new system of land settlement. This created great unrest among the tribals.
2. Plundering the Forest Wealth :- The tribal people in general depended upon the forest for their livelihood.
The government activities tended to exercise a complete control over the forest wealth. This led to anger among the tribals.
3. Tyranny of the Landlords :- The landlords put heavy demands on the tribal people. They levied a variety of unfair and high taxes on them. The British encouraged the landlords to do so.
4. The Christian missionaries were also active in some of the tribal areas and sometimes created hostile feeling among the tribes.
5. The tribes mostly resented the instrusion of these outsiders in their society. Their resentement resulted in occasional violent outbursts against the British government called tribal revolts.

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