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(LIGHT- REFLECTION) (BASED ON NCERT PATTERN)
Light is a form of energy that produces in us the sensation of sight.
What is Reflection of Light? To begin with, the reflection of light occurs whenever a ray of light falls on a smooth polished surface and bounces back. In other words, the ray of light approaching any surface results in the reflection of the light. Further, the ray of light which falls on the surface is known as Incident ray while the ray of light which gets reflected back is called Reflected ray. Also, if a perpendicular is to be drawn between the two rays on the reflecting surface, it is known as a Normal
Incident Ray= It is the ray which falls on the surface Reflected Ray= The ray which is reflected from the surface Normal = Perpendicular on the polished surface P= Point of reflection i= Angle of Incidence r= Angle of Reflection
Laws of Reflection After understanding the meaning of reflection, you must also understand its two imperative laws. Using these laws, the reflection of the incident ray on various surfaces like a plane mirror, water, metal surfaces, etc can be determined. For instance, if we consider a plane mirror, here are the laws of reflection:
• The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray must lie in the same plane.
• The angle of incidence (i) = The angle of reflection (r).
Types of Reflection While exploring the basics of the reflection of light, it is also important to go through the different types of reflection. Whenever we change the basic elements or the form of basic elements involved in this phenomenon, the result also varies. Following are the main three types of reflection:
• Regular Reflection Diffused Reflection Multiple Reflection
Diffused Reflection To explore the meaning of diffused reflection, let us consider reflective surfaces other than mirrors. The common surfaces which can be used for diffusion of light are comparatively rough as they are made up of different material than glass and contain some marks, scratches, dust or dents. All these things hamper the quality and brightness of reflection. Thus, the comparison of both the angles of reflection on such rough surfaces is completely distorted. In diffused reflection, the incident ray falls on different points and gets reflected in an entirely different direction and hence, we see non-shiny objects.
Light-Reflection and Refraction
Question. If a magnification of -1 is to be obtained using a concave mirror of focal length 6 cm, then what should be the position of the object?
Ans. Magnification of -1 means that the image is real and size of image is equal to the size of the object. This is possible when the object is placed at C of a concave mirror. Therefore, position of object = C = 2f = 12 cm in front of the concave mirror.
Question. A man stands 10 m away in front of a large plane mirror. How far must he walk before he is 5 m away from his image?
Ans. As the distance between the man and the mirror is 10 m, the distance between man and his image is 10 + 10 or 20 m, as image distance and object distance are equal. Distance between the man and his image is 10m when the man is 2.0 m away from the mirror. Therefore, the man has to walk 10 m - 2.0m = 7.5 m towards the
Question. An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm in front of a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm. Write four characteristics of the image formed by the mirror.
Ans. The four characteristics of image formed:
(1) Image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect.
(2) The size of image is equal to that of the object.
(3) The image formed is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it.
(4) The image is laterally inverted.
Question. List in proper sequence the steps of the experiment for determining the approximate focal length of a given concave mirror by obtaining the image of a distant object.
Ans. Steps for determining approximate focal length of concave mirror:
(1) Fix a concave mirror on the stand such that it faces a source of bright light or a distant tree.
(2) Place a screen on a stand in front of the reflecting surface of the mirror for obtaining the image of the distant object on it.
(3) Adjust the position of the screen by moving it back and forth until a sharp and clear image of the distant object is obtained on it.
(4) Mark the position of the mirror and the screen and measure the distance between them with a meter scale
1. What is light? What is its nature?
2. What is the speed of light in vacuum?
3. What is a mirror?
4. What is the focal length of a plane mirror?
5. Differentiate between real and virtual image.
6. What type of image is formed on a cinema screen?
7. A concave mirror is a part of sphere of radius 40 cm. What is the focal length of the mirror?
8. Radius of curvature of a mirror is 20 cm. What type of mirror is it?
9. Magnification of a mirror is +2/3. What type of mirror is it?
10.A 1cm high object is placed at a distance of 2F from a convex lens, what is the height of the image formed?
11. Magnification of a mirror is ‘—1’. What type of mirror is it? What is the position of object and image? Give the nature of image.
12. Name the type of mirror used:-
(i) as a reflector in search light (iii) by the dentist
(ii) as side view mirror in vehicles. (iv) as a shaving mirror
13. Wherever you may stand in front of mirror, your image is always erect & same sized, what type of mirror is it?
14. (a) A ray of light strikes the mirror at an angle of 200. What is the angle of reflection?
(b) Give the angle of incidence and reflection for normal incidence.
15. A candle is kept in front of plane mirror at distance of 15 cm. What is distance between candle & its image?
16. Radius of curvature of a mirror is +24cm. Name the kind of mirror and give the characteristics of the image formed by it.
17. Define refraction.
18. State the laws of refraction.
19. How does the lateral displacement depend upon:- (a) Thickness of the glass slab. (b) Angle of incidence
20. What is the lateral displacement when a ray of light falls normally on a glass slab?
21. Refractive index of water with respect to air is 1.33, what is refractive index of air with respect to water?
22. Under what condition, the angle of refraction will be equal to the angle of incidence?
23. Refractive index of glass is 1.65, what is the speed of light in glass?
24. If refractive indices of alcohol & water are 1.36 and 1.33 respectively, which of the two is optically denser?
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