CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Inside Our Earth Worksheet

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Give short answers for the following questions:

1) Name the main types of rocks with one example of each.
 
Ans-The three main types of rocks and their examples are:
1. Igneous or primary rocks -: granite, dolerite and basalt.
2. Sedimentary rocks -: sandstone, limestone and coal.
3. Metamorphic rocks -: quartzite, marble and slate.
 
2) How are extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks formed?
 
Ans- The extrusive igneous rocks are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma on the surface of the earth, while the intrusive igneous rocks are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma below the surface of the earth.
 
3) How are metamorphic rocks formed?
 
Ans. Metamorphic rocks are formed when the original properties of igneous and sedimentary rocks such as their colour, hardness, texture and mineral composition are changed due to excessive heat and pressure inside the Earth.
 
4) How are rocks and minerals are useful to us?
 
Ans. The rocks and minerals are useful to us in the following ways:-
a) Rocks are used to construct roads, houses and buildings.
b) Chemicals from sedimentary rocks are used to make fertilizers.
c) Soil is formed from rocks.
d) Minerals like coal and petroleum provide power.
 
Give long answer for the following questions.
 
1) What do you know about the structure of the earth?
 
Ans. On the basis of varying density and other physical and chemical properties of rocks, the earth can be divided into three concentric layers- Crust, Mantle and Core.
 
a) Crust:- The crust is the solid outermost layer. It is also called the lithosphere. It is relatively thin layer. The upper part of the crust is called continental crust which is made up of silica(si) and aluminia (al) and so it is called sial. The lower part is called oceanic crust which is made up of silica (si) and magnesium (ma) and therefore it is called sima.
 
b) Mantle:- The mantle lies between the crust and core. The thickness of this layer is about 2900 km. It is made up of iron and magnesium.
 
c) Core:- The core lies below the mantle and around the centre of the earth . The average radius of the core is about 3500 km. It is made up of heavy metals, such as nickel and iron . Therefore, it is also called nife ( ni stands for nickel and “fe” for iron ).
 
2) What are the main features of the mantle and the core?
 
Ans) The main features of Mantle are.
1. It is located between the crust and core.
2. Its average radius is about 2900 km
3. It is made up of iron and magnesium.
4. The average density ranges between 3.5 g and 5.5 g per cubic cm.
5. The temperature is very high in this layer.
 
The main features of the Core are:
1. It is located below the mantle and around the centre of the earth.
2. The average radius of the core is about 3500 km.
3. It is made up of nickel and iron.
4. The average density ranges between 5.0 g and 13.0 g per cubic cm.
5. The temperature of this layer varies between 22000c and 5000oc.
 
Q3) What are the main characteristics of sedimentary rocks?
 
Ans) Sedimentary rocks have the following characteristics-
1. These rocks are softer than igneous rocks.
2. These rocks have horizontal layers arranged one above the other.
3. These rocks are mostly formed under water and have marks of waves and mud- cracks.
4. These rocks also contain remains of animals and plants, called fossils, between the layer.
 
Q4) Explain the working of the rock cycle.
 
Ans) The rock cycle is the process by which one type of rock changes into another type under certain condition in a cyclic manner. The rock cycle starts when magma cools down and forms igneous rocks. The different agents of weathering and erosion break up the igneous rocks into small pieces and then transport and deposit them in the basins to form sedimentary rocks. The igneous and the sedimentary rocks when subjected to intense heat and pressure change into metamorphic rocks. The sedimentary and metamorphic rocks get buried and melt to form magma. The magma again cools down and forms igneous rocks.
 

            Very Short Answer

Q1)      Define fossils?

Q2)      What is the radius of the earth?

Q3)      Where the deepest is mine of the world?

Q4)      Name three types of rocks?

Q5)      What are rock cycles?           

 

            Short Answer

Q6)      What are the uses of rocks?

Q7)      What lies in the interior of the earth?

Q8)      What is the earth made up of?

Q9)      Distinguish between sial and sima?

Q10)    What do you mean by the rocks?        

            Long Answer

Q11)    Explain about the types of rocks?

Q12)    Distinguish between crust and mantle?

Q13)    Write short note on the interior of the earth?

Q14)    State the difference between rocks and minerals?

Q15)    State the difference between intrusive rocks and extrusive rocks?

 

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