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Revision Notes for Class 12 History Theme I Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
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Theme I Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments Notes Class 12 History
Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
Key concepts in nutshell
• Buildings of sanchi Kannakkheda are the most wonderful ancient buildings in the state of Bhopal.
• Buddhist, Jaina and Brahamanical text, monument and inscription are the some of the important historical sources of the age of C 600 BCE-600CE.
•Many was provided by rulers of Bhopal, Shahjahan Begum and her successor Sultan Jahan Begum to preserved the ancient sites.
•The Rigveda is a collection of hymns, praise of many deities like Agni, Indra, Soma etc.
•The basic philosophy of Jainism already existed in north India even before the birth of vardhamana Mahaveera.
•Tha Bhuddha was the most influential teachers of his times.
•Two traditions were including in modern Hinduism – Vaishnavism and Shaivism.
QUESTIONS ANSWER –
Question. Mention four places associated with the life of the Buddha.
Answer. 1. Lumbini (birthplace of the Buddha)
2. Kapilvastu ( the Buddha was brought up here)
3. Bodh Gaya ( the Buddha attained enlightenment here)
4. Sarnath- (the Buddha delivered his first religious discourse here).
Question. What do you mean by Tri –ratna?
Answer. According to Jainism, Moksha or salvation can be attained by observing Tri- ratna or three jewels. These are-
1. Right knowledge
2. Right faith
3. Right action.
Question. Into how many categories the religious sects that originated during the 6th century B.C. can be divided?
Answer. The religious sects of the 6th century. B.C. can be divided into two categories:
1. The faiths which were openly against Vedic religion,
2. The faiths which did not oppose Vedic religion openly but propagated new principles venerating one or the other old divinity.
Question. What do you mean by “Dharma Chakra Pravartana”?
Answer. Dharma Chakra Pravartana means ‘sitting in motion the wheel of Dharma’. The first religious discourse or sermon delivered by Mahatma Buddha after attaining enlightenment at Mrig dav or Deer Park of Sarnath near Varanasi , is known as ‘ Maha chakra Pravartana’.
Question. Mention the various incarnations of Vishnu according to Vaishnavism.
Answer. According to Vaishnavism there are ten incarnations of Vishnu. These are: Matsya , Kurma, Varsha, Narsimha, Vamana, Parsurama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, and Kalki.
Question. Mention the teachings of Mahatma Buddha?
Answer. According to Buddhist philosophy the world is transient ( anicca) and constantly changing it is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within this transient world, sorrow is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.The Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin. According to Buddhist tradition, his last words to his followers were: “Be lamps unto yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation”.
Question. What was the Budha Sangha? Discuss its characteristics.
Answer. 1. Budha founded organization of monks called “Sangha”.
2. These monks served as teachers of “Dhamma”. They believed a simple life.
3. They possessed only the essential things which were required for their survival.
4. Earlier only men were allowed to joined the ‘Sangha’, later on the women were allowed for admission to the Sangha.
5. All the members were regarded as equal in the Sangha.
Question. How Buddhist text were prepared and preserved?
Answer. The Buddha used to give teachings through debate and discussion. Men, Women and children attended these discussions and discussed what they heard. None of his teachings were written down during his life time. After his death, his followers called a council of elders at Vaishali. This council compiled all of his teachings. These complications were known as Tripitaka which literally means the tree baskets to hold different types of text. Firstly they were transmitted orally and then written and classified according to their subject matter and length. When Bhuddism spread to new lands like Srilanka, other texts like Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa were written. Many Pilgrims like FaXian and Xuan Zang carried Buddhist texts with them to disseminate the teachings of Buddha.
Question. Discuss how and why Stupas were built?
Answer. 1. Inscription found on the railings and pillars of stupas record donations made for building and decorating them.
2. Some donations were made by kings such as the Satavahanas; others were made by guilds,
3. Such as that of the ivory workers who financed part of one of the gateways at Sanchi.
4. Hundreds of donations were made by women and men who mention their names.
5. Sometimes adding the name of the place from where they came, as well as their occupations and names of their relatives.
5. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis also contributed towards building these monuments.
Stupas were built for many resons -
1. There were other placestoo that were regarded as sacred. This was because relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or object used by him were buried there. These were mounds known as stupas.
2. The tradition of erecting stupas may have been pre- Buddhist, but they came to be associated with Buddhism.
3. Since they contained relics regarded as sacred, the entire stupa came to be venerated as an emblem of both the Buddha and Buddhism.
4. By the second century, a number of stupas, including those at Bharhut , Sanchi and Sarnath had been built.
Question. Read the given passage carefully and answer the question that follows –
Why were Stupa’s built
“This is an excerpt from the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, part of the Sutta Pitaka: As the Buddha lay dying, Ananda asked him: “What are we to do Lord, with remains of the Tathagata (another name for the Buddha)?”
The Buddha replied : “Hinder not yourselves Ananda by honouring the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, be intent on your own good.”
But when pressed further, the Buddha said: “At the four crossroads they should erect a thupa (Pali for stupa) to the Tathagata. And whosever shall there place garlands or perfume …. or make a salutation there, or become in its presence calm of heart, that shall long be to them for a profit and joy.”
Question. What are the Stupas ? Who advised the Ananda to build the Stupa?
Answer. The Stupa were the sacred places. They preserved the relics of the Buddha shch as his bodily remains or the objects used by him. All these things were buried in the stupas.
Question. From which chapter has this excerpt been taken? It is a part of which book?
Answer. This excerpt has been taken from the “ Mahaparinibbhana Sutta.” It was a part of the “Sutta Pitaka.”
Question. Who was the Tathagata? What had he told about the importance of the stupa?
Answer. Tathagata was another name for the Buddha. He told Ananda that the honour to his worldly remains was not important. He laid stress on the importance of one’s good deeds. The stupas should be erected on the holy places. If anybody placed garlands or perfume or saluted them, he will not only get the peace of mind but also profit and joy.
Question. Name any three places where the Stupas have been built.
Answer. The stpas were built at many places. The most important stupas existed at Bharhut, Sanchi and Sarnath.
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