CBSE Class XII History - Colonial Cities. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THEME : 12
URBANISATION, PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE
Key concepts in nutshell
Sources :- ( I ) Records of the East India company.
( ii ) Census reports
( iii ) Municipal reports.
• The urban population increased from about 10 % to 13 % during the period 1900-1940.
• During the end of the 18th century Madras, Bombay and Calcutta had developed into important ports.
•The ruling elite built racially exclusive clubs, race courses and theatres.
• The development of new modes of transportation such as horse drawn carriages, trams, buses etc. facilitated peoples to live at distant place from the places of their work.
•The rulers everywhere try to express their power through buildings. Many Indian adopted European styles of architecture as symbols of modernity and civilisation.
The settlement of the local peoples were named “Black Town”. A fortification was built around the “ White Town” to separate it from the “ Black Town”.
Difficulties in collecting datas :-
(i) Peoples were unwilling to give correct informations.
(ii ) Figure of mortality and diseases were difficult to collect.
Ports :- Madras, Bombay and Calcutta
Forts :- St. George in Madras and Fort William in Calcutta.
Q.1 To what extent are census data useful in reconstruction patterns of urbanization in the colonial context ? (2)
Ans. Census data are very useful in reconstructing pattern of urbanization in the colonial context.
(i) These data are useful of know exact number of population as well as the total population of white and blacks.
(ii) These data also tell us upto what extent total number of people or total population had been affected adversely by the fearful or deadly diseases.
(iii) Census data provide us complete information about total number of different communities, their language, their works and means of livelihood as well as about their caste and religion also.
Q. 2 What were Civil Lines during the colonial rule? (2)
Ans. After the Revolt of 1857British attitudes in India were shaped by a constant fear of rebellion. They felt that towns needed to be better defended, and white people had to live in more secure and segregated enclaves, away from the threat of the “natives”. Pasturelands and agricultural fields around the older towns were cleared, and new urban spaces called “Civil Lines” were set up. White people began to live in the Civil Lines.
Q3. Why did the records of the colonial cities were preserved? (2)
Ans. (i) Tow know the change of population.
(ii) For reconstructing the history of growth of the colonial cities.
Q4. Write a common characteristics of the three colonial cities Bombay, Calcutta and Madras ? (2)
Ans. The English East India Company established their administrative and trade centres in these cities. Ports developed near these cities.
Q5. Write the names of any three hill stations established by the British in India? (2)
Ans. Shimla, Mount Abu and Darjeeling.
Q6. What were the new kinds of public places that emerged in the colonial city? what function did they serve ?
Answer 1. (1). By the 18th century , madras, Calcutta and Bomaby had become important points and cities. The settlement that came up here were convenient points for collecting goods. The English East India Company built its factories (i.e. mercantile offices) there and because of competition among European companies fortified there settlement for protection. In Madras, Fort St. George, in Calcutta Fort William and in Bombay the Fort marked out the areas of British settlement which were known as ‘White town’. The Indian Merchants, artisan and other women who had economic dealings with Europeans merchants lived outside their fort. These forts in settlement of train own known as ‘Black Towns’.
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