CBSE Class XII History - An Imperial Capital - Vijaynagar Empire. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THEME – 7
AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL : VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE
Key concepts in nutshell
√ Discovery of Hampi – In 1799 the frst British antiquarian colin Mackenzie. First surveyor general of India visited the ruins Hampi, collected some manuscripts had some water colours painted on monuments and made the first map of the site.
√ The Rayas, Nayakas and Sultans – Harihara and Bukka asserted their independence of the Delhi sultanate and established the kingdom of vijaynagar on AD 1336.
√ Kings and trading class – The warfare depended mainly upon powerful cavalry. The Portuguese settled on the west coast of India in attempted to establish their trading and military stations.
√ The climax and decline of Vijay Nagar empire – Krishadeva Raya was un able administrator, He built dams for irrigation. He build magnificent places and temples. Its ruler Rama Raya was miserably defeated on the battlefield of (Rakshasi – Tangadi) Talikota in A.D.1565. The victorious armies plundered and destroyed the city of Vijay nagar.
√ Vijaynagar Hampi Architecture - The Vijaynagar architecture (Hampi Architecture) of the period (1336-1365)was unique building style evolved by the imperial vijaynagar empire.
√ Hampi Bazar – Portuguese travellers paes and nuntiz visited hampi in the mid 1500 century. They give an account of hampi Bazar thus “ in this street lived many merchants and there you will find all sorts of rubies, diamonds pearls and cloths that you may wish to buy.
√ Building and places - we know today about the vijaynagar palces and buildings is derived from the archeological excavations at Hampi as no royal palace structures have survived.
√ Kings royal enclosure – Another important building at Hampi is the kings royal enclosure. Paes tells against the gate there were two circles in which there were the dancing women richly arrayed with many jewels of gold and diamonds and many pearls.
√ Mahanavami dibba - The Mahanavami dibba is located on one of the highest points in the city. It is a very large platform rising from a base of about 11000 feet to height of a 40 feet. It seems that is supported a wooden structure.
√ Forts of Vijay nagar – in the constant struggle for power, fort and fortified settlements were a potent symbol of authority. The rulers of Vijaynagar empire created the cities with the main object of protection against invasions. The city itself was a fortress and designed as such in every manner.
Q.1:- Hampi town is located in the bank of which river? 2
Ans. It is located on the bank of Tunghbhadra river.
Q.2 :- Which goddess is called Pampa ? 2
Ans. Goddess Pampa is the name of goddess Parvati.
Q.3 :- Who was Colin Mackenzie ? Mention his importance in Indian history ? 2
Ans. Colin Mackenzie used to work in British East India Company. He took birth in1754. He is a famous engineer, surveyor and humanist. He became the first Surveyer General of British India in 1815. He died in the year 1821. He began to survey in the traditional culture and historical places of India in order to run administration of Colonial India more smoothly and effectively.
Q.4 :- Mention the silent features of the temple of Hampi. 2
Ans. The temple of Hampi is well articulated with artistic pillars like structure. Magnificent structure with gallery surrounded with pillars around divinity and the place of god is one of the features of the temples. The main temple of Hampi is Vitthal and Hazareram.
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