CBSE Class XII History - Bhakti-Sufi Traditions. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THEME – 6
CHANGES IN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND DEVOTIONAL TEXTS
(08TH TO 18TH CENTURY)
Key concepts in nutshell
√ From 8th to 18th century striking feature was a visibility of wide range of gods & goddesses in sculpture & text.
√ There was integration of cults – composition, compilation & presentation of puranic texts in simple Sanskrit verses.
√ Tantric forms of worship – more prevalent among women.
√ Bhakti traditions classified into saguna (with athesist) and nirguna (without from attracts worship of abstract form)
√ The Alvars and Narayanars of Tamilnadu – The worshippers of Vishnu and Nayanars – devotees of Shiva – common features – traveled singing hymns in Tamil.
√ Alvars & nayanars initiated movement against caste system & dominance of Brahamans. Nalayiradivyaprabandanam – important composition of Alvars equal to four Vedas.
√ Status of women – composition of Andal (a women Alvar) popular, songs of Karaikkal Ammaiyar – were widely sung.
√ State patronage in south for Vedic gods rather than Jainism & Buddhisn, Cholas patronized brahamnical tradition, making land grant as to lord shiva at Gangaikonda Cholapuram bronze sculpture of shiva.
√ Singing of hymns under royal patronage were encountered – Chola ruler Parantaka I consecrated metal image of Appan, Sambandan and sundarar in Shiva temples.
√ Karnataka saw a new movement under basavanna a brahamana in court of Chalukyan ruler – his followers Virashaivas (heroes of Shiva) or Lingayatd (wearers of Linga) – important comminuty to this day – who worship shiva in form of a linga.
√ Lingayats challenged idea of caste and questiones the theory of rebirth. They encountered remarriage of widows.
√ North India saw the emergence of Rajput states which patronized Brahmans – performed secular & ritual function. The Naths, Jogis, siddhas also.
√ Through guided by ulema, rulers followed a flexible policy granting religious tax exemptions to non Muslims sometimes.
√ Those who accepted Islam in India accepted in principal the five pillars of faith but these were overlooked with diviation in practice derived from local customs & affiliations. (summi, shia) some like in Malabar court adopted local language
√ Sufism – Sufis were critical of dogmatic definitions & scholastic method of interpreting – Quran. They emphasized interpretation of Quran on basis of personal experiences.
√ Chishtis – were a part of Sufis – hospices of khangah were small roome & hall for students to live & pray. Life in chaisti khangah was like the life of a monastery & catered to all travellers rich or poor. Shaikh Nizamuddin chishti had many followers.
√ The practice of visits to dargas gained prominence by 14th century – shrines became very popular. Also music & dance & mystical chants were performed to evoke divine ecstasy.
√ The Bhakti movement saw the emergence of poet saint like kabir where poems written in form in which every meaning are inverted.
02 marks questions:
Q.1 What does Bhakti movement mean ? 2
Ans. A series of hindu saints& reformers started religious reform movements which adopted the method of devotion ( Bhakti ) to achievethe salvation their method of expression of devotion ranged from the routine worship of deities within temple & singing & chanting of devotional composition.
Q.2 Who were Alavars? 2
Ans. In southern India the devotees of Vishnu were called Alvars.
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