CBSE Class XII History - Rebels and the Raj. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
REBELS AND THE RAJ
Key concepts in nutshell
• Rebels and the Raj – The revolt of 1857 and its representation Pattern of Rebellion - People from different walks of life plunged into the revolt – due to their hatred against the oppressive policies of the British Centres of the Revolt – Lucknow, Kanpur, Barrelly, Meerut, Arrah in Bihar.
• Leaders – Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, nana Saheb, Kunwar Singh, Bakt Khan, Begum Hazret Mehals, Tatya tope.
• Awadh revolt – direct annexation policy of Dalhousie – 1856. Hatred provoked – dispossessed taluqdars of Awadh , Injustice done to Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh embittered the people.
• Revolt of the sepoys : 1) Policy of social superiority of British
2) Interference in religious matters – greased cartridges issues.
• The vision of unity : 1) Hindu Muslim unity
2) Search for alternative powers
3) Rebels established parallel administration, in Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur after capturing centres of British power. Later they failed.
• British policy of repression.
• Repression – 1857 – North India was brought under strict law to prolonged attacked of British – one from Calcutta to North India, another from Punjab to recover Delhi, 27000 Muslims hanged.
• Image of the Revolt – Pictorial images produced by British and Indians – posters and cartoons.
• The performance of terror : 1) Execution of rebels
• Nationalist imageries: 1) Inspiration to nationalists Celebration as first war of Independence – leaders depicted as heroic figures.
Very short Questions (02 marks each)
Q1. Which Governor-Genreral introduced the Subsidary Alliance ?Name the four major powers accepting it. 2
Ans. Subsidary alliance was introduced by Lord Wliesley. Hyderabad, Awadh, Mysore, Tanjore, Surat, etc were the four major powers who accepted it.
Q2. Which English lady defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur?
Ans. Miss Wheeler defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur. 2
Q3. Who was the last Nawab of Awadh? Where was he sent on Pension? 2
Ans. Wajid Ali Shah was last Nawab of Awadh. He was sent to Calcutta on pension.
Short Questions (05 marks each)
Q4. What were the policies and administrative causes of the Revolt of 1857? 5
Ans. (a) Imperialist policy of the British administrators.
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
(c) Abolition of pensions and Titles.
(d) Disrespect to the Mughal Emperor.
(e) Annexation of Awadh
(f)Misuse of Subsidiary alliance.
Q5. What were the causes of the failure of the 1857 Revolt? 5
Ans. (a) Breaking out before of the fixed date.
(b) Co-operation of the native states to the British.
(c) Lack of co-operation from the Elite.
(d) Limited resources of the Rebels.
(e)Absence of a common ideal.
(f) Diplomacy of the British.
Q6. Discuess the nature of revolt of 1857 5
Ans. (a) Only a Sepoy mutiny –
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