CBSE Class XII History - Peasant, Zamidars and State. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THEME – 8
PEASANT, ZAMINDARS AND STATE
Key concepts in nutshell
1. Peasants and agricultural production -
Geographical Diversity Looking for sources – Historical Epic and Records, Important chronicles – Ain-i-Akbari, Records from Gujrat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
Peasants and their lands – cultivation was based on the principle of individual ownership.
Irrigation and Technology – Expansion of agriculture, monsoon remained the backbone of Indian agriculture, artificial system of irrigations had to be devised, agriculture often harnessed cattle energy.
An abundance of crops – two major crops - the kharif and the rabi, new crops came from different parts of the world.
2. The village community.
Caste and the rural milieu – Rajputs are mentioned as peasants.
Panchayats and headman – The panchayats was usually a heterogeneous body, the headman was chosen through the consensus of the village elders, functions of the panchayat.
Village artisans – The existence of substantial members of artisans.
A little republic – deep inequities based on caste and gender distinctions.
3. Women in agrarian Society –
women’s role in the production process, high mortality rates among women, women petitioned to the panchayat, hindu and muslim women inherited zamindaris.
4. Forest and tribes –
Beyond settled villages, livelihood came from the gathering of forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture, jungles provided a good defence.
Inroads into forests – the state required elephants for the army, hunting expeditions by the Mughals, the spread of commercial agriculture
A. Very short questions (02 Marks each)
Q1. Mention various duties performed by state officials in the 16th century?
Ans. They collect land revenue, measure the lands and keep records etc.
Q2. Who was the author of Ain-I Akbari?
Ans. Abul Fazl, writer of Ain-I Akbari, he was a famous Persian author, gems of Akber’s court.
Q3. Who were Raiyat? How many types of Raiyat?
Ans. They were peasants. There are two types of Raiyat - Khud-khasta and Pahi-khasta.
Khud-khasta – They were residents of the village in which they held their land.
Pahi-khasta – They were non-resident cultivators who belonged to some other village, but cultivated lands were else were on a contractual basis.
Q4. How many seasons of agriculture according to Ain?
Ans. According to Ain-i-Akbari, agriculture was organized around the two major seasonal cycles – The kharif and the rabi.
Kharif – rice and jawar. Rabi – wheat and gram
Q5. What was Jins-i-Kamil?
Ans. Literally perfect crops. Example - cotton and sugarcane.
B. Short Questions (05 marks each)
Q6. Describe the functions of panchayat?
Ans. 1. Community welfare – Construction of bund or digging the cannel which peasants usually could not afford to do on their own.
2. Arrangements against natural calamities, like floods, famine, Droughts etc.
3. Regulate rural societies, like marriage and caste.
4. To ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities
5. Punishment – Example - to levy fines and inflict from the community.
Q7. Describe Ain-i-Akbari?
Ans. 1. Vision of Akbar’s empire.
2. Strong ruling class.
3. The organization of the court, administration and the army.
4. Included detailed revenue, records – with the help of Todarmal tried to reorganized the hole revenue system.
5. Useful description of agrarian society.
Q8. What were the role played by women in agrarian society?
Ans. 1. Women worked shoulder to shoulder with men in fields.
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