CBSE Class 12 History Peasant Zamindars And State Notes

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Peasant Zamindars And State Class 12 History Revision Notes

Class 12 History students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Peasant Zamindars And State in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 History will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Peasant Zamindars And State Notes Class 12 History




Key concepts in nutshell

1. Peasants and agricultural production -

Geographical Diversity Looking for sources – Historical Epic and Records, Important chronicles – Ain-i-Akbari, Records from Gujrat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Peasants and their lands – cultivation was based on the principle of individual ownership.

Irrigation and Technology – Expansion of agriculture, monsoon remained the backbone of Indian agriculture, artificial system of irrigations had to be devised, agriculture often harnessed cattle energy.

An abundance of crops – two major crops - the kharif and the rabi, new crops came from different parts of the world.

2. The village community.

Caste and the rural milieu – Rajputs are mentioned as peasants.

Panchayats and headman – The panchayats was usually a heterogeneous body, the headman was chosen through the consensus of the village elders, functions of the panchayat.

Village artisans – The existence of substantial members of artisans.

A little republic – deep inequities based on caste and gender distinctions.

3. Women in agrarian Society

women’s role in the production process, high mortality rates among women, women petitioned to the panchayat, hindu and muslim women inherited zamindaris.

4. Forest and tribes

Beyond settled villages, livelihood came from the gathering of forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture, jungles provided a good defence.

Inroads into forests – the state required elephants for the army, hunting expeditions by the Mughals, the spread of commercial agriculture

A. Very short questions (02 Marks each)

Q1. Mention various duties performed by state officials in the 16th century?

Ans. They collect land revenue, measure the lands and keep records etc.

Q2. Who was the author of Ain-I Akbari? 

Ans. Abul Fazl, writer of Ain-I Akbari, he was a famous Persian author, gems of Akber’s court.

Q3. Who were Raiyat? How many types of Raiyat?

Ans. They were peasants. There are two types of Raiyat - Khud-khasta and Pahi-khasta.

Khud-khasta – They were residents of the village in which they held their land.

Pahi-khasta – They were non-resident cultivators who belonged to some other village, but cultivated lands were else were on a contractual basis.

Q4. How many seasons of agriculture according to Ain?

Ans. According to Ain-i-Akbari, agriculture was organized around the two major seasonal cycles – The kharif and the rabi.
Kharif – rice and jawar. Rabi – wheat and gram

Q5. What was Jins-i-Kamil?

Ans. Literally perfect crops. Example - cotton and sugarcane.

B. Short Questions (05 marks each)

Q6. Describe the functions of panchayat?

Ans. 1. Community welfare – Construction of bund or digging the cannel which peasants usually could not afford to do on their own.

2. Arrangements against natural calamities, like floods, famine, Droughts etc.

3. Regulate rural societies, like marriage and caste.

4. To ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities

5. Punishment – Example - to levy fines and inflict from the community.

Q7. Describe Ain-i-Akbari?

Ans. 1. Vision of Akbar’s empire.

2. Strong ruling class.

3. The organization of the court, administration and the army.

4. Included detailed revenue, records – with the help of Todarmal tried to reorganized the hole revenue system.

5. Useful description of agrarian society.

Q8. What were the role played by women in agrarian society?

Ans. 1. Women worked shoulder to shoulder with men in fields.  

2. Women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest.

3. Craft production – such as spinning yarn, sifting and kneading clay for pottery and embroidery.

4. Some restriction during some days of month – women were not allowed to touch the plough or the potter’s wheel in western India.

5. Produce children and look after them.

Q9. How land revenue was fixed?

Ans. 1. It consisted of two stages - Jama and Hasil. Jama was the amount assessed and Hasil the amount collected.

2. Both cultivated and cultivable land measured in each province.

3. Prepared annual record of the number of cultivators in each village

4. Officials were appointed to measure land revenue.

5. The Dewan, who was responsible for supervising the fiscal system of the empire.

Q10. Explain the salient features of zabti system?


1. Measurement of land was compulsory.

2. Classification of land:- Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, Banjar.

3. Calculation of the average products.

4. Fixation of state share.

5. Commutation into cash.

6. Collection of land revenue.

Long Questions 

Q11. Who were zamindars? What were their functions? 

Ans. Zamindars were the part of rural society, who lived on agricultural production had milkiyat belongs to upper caste. New Zamindars emerged from lower caste.

Functions of Zamindars :

1. Collect revenue.

2. Midiate between king and peasant.

3. Maintain military.

4. Developed agricultural land.

5. Give money to farmers for agriculture.

6. Sell their own agricultural produce.

7. Make an arrangement for weekly or fortnightly market in the villages.

8. Making arrangement for repairing roads and water sources.

12. Passage Based Question:-

Read the given passage carefully ad answer the question that follows;


The Ain on land revenue collection

Let him (the amil-guzar) not make it a practice of taking only in cash but also in kind. The latter is effected in several ways. First, kankut: in the Hindi language Kan signifies grain, and kut, estimate. If any doubts arise, the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling and the inferior and the hesitation removed. Often, too the land taken by appraisement, gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, batai, also called bhaoli, the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties. But in the case several intelligent inspectors are required; otherwise, the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly, khet-batai when they divided the fields after they are sown. Fourthly, lang batai; after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselves, and each takes his share home and turns it to profit.

Q1. Explain the term Kankut? 

Ans. In the Hindi language Kan signifies grain and kut means estimate.

Q2. Explain the system of batai or bhaoli system of land revenue collection?

Ans. The crop are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the parties. But in this cash several intelligent inspectors are required, otherwise, the evil minded and false are given to deception.

Q3. Explain the system of lang batai? 

Ans. After cutting the grain they from it in heaps and divide it among themselves, and each takes his share home and turns it to profit.

Q4. Which system of revenue collection, do you think, is better and why?

Ans. Long Batai, because they divided equal among themselves and get profit.

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CBSE Class 12 History Study Material In Hindi Part A
CBSE Class 12 History Study Material In Hindi Part B
CBSE Class 12 History Study Material In Hindi Part C
Theme I Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
CBSE Class 12 History Bricks Beads And Bones Notes
CBSE Class 12 History Themes in Indian History Notes
Theme I Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
CBSE Class 12 History Kings Farmers And Towns Notes
Theme I Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class Early Societies
CBSE Class 12 History Kinship Caste And Class In Early Societies Notes
Theme I Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
CBSE Class 12 History Thinkers Belief And Buildings Notes
Theme II Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of Society
CBSE Class 12 History Through The Eyes Of Travelers Notes
Theme II Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
CBSE Class 12 History Bhakti Sufi Traditions Notes
Theme II Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara
CBSE Class 12 History An Imperial Capital Vijaynagar Empire Notes
Theme II Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire
CBSE Class 12 History Peasant Zamindars And State Notes
Theme II Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
CBSE Class 12 History Kings And Chronicles Notes
Theme III Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
CBSE Class 12 History Colonialism And The Countryside Notes
Theme III Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations
CBSE Class 12 History Rebels And The Raj Notes
Theme III Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
CBSE Class 12 History Colonial Cities Notes
Theme III Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
CBSE Class 12 History Mahatma Gandhi And The Nationalist Movement Notes
Theme III Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences
CBSE Class 12 History Understanding Partition Notes
Theme III Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
CBSE Class 12 History Framing The Constitution Notes

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