CBSE Class 12 History Peasant Zamindars And State Notes

CBSE Class XII History - Peasant, Zamidars and State. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

THEME – 8

PEASANT, ZAMINDARS AND STATE

Key concepts in nutshell

1. Peasants and agricultural production -

Geographical Diversity Looking for sources – Historical Epic and Records, Important chronicles – Ain-i-Akbari, Records from Gujrat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Peasants and their lands – cultivation was based on the principle of individual ownership.

Irrigation and Technology – Expansion of agriculture, monsoon remained the backbone of Indian agriculture, artificial system of irrigations had to be devised, agriculture often harnessed cattle energy.

An abundance of crops – two major crops - the kharif and the rabi, new crops came from different parts of the world.

2. The village community.

Caste and the rural milieu – Rajputs are mentioned as peasants.

Panchayats and headman – The panchayats was usually a heterogeneous body, the headman was chosen through the consensus of the village elders, functions of the panchayat.

Village artisans – The existence of substantial members of artisans.

A little republic – deep inequities based on caste and gender distinctions.

3. Women in agrarian Society

women’s role in the production process, high mortality rates among women, women petitioned to the panchayat, hindu and muslim women inherited zamindaris.

4. Forest and tribes

Beyond settled villages, livelihood came from the gathering of forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture, jungles provided a good defence.

Inroads into forests – the state required elephants for the army, hunting expeditions by the Mughals, the spread of commercial agriculture

A. Very short questions (02 Marks each)

Q1. Mention various duties performed by state officials in the 16th century?

Ans. They collect land revenue, measure the lands and keep records etc.

Q2. Who was the author of Ain-I Akbari? 

Ans. Abul Fazl, writer of Ain-I Akbari, he was a famous Persian author, gems of Akber’s court.

Q3. Who were Raiyat? How many types of Raiyat?

Ans. They were peasants. There are two types of Raiyat - Khud-khasta and Pahi-khasta.

Khud-khasta – They were residents of the village in which they held their land.

Pahi-khasta – They were non-resident cultivators who belonged to some other village, but cultivated lands were else were on a contractual basis.

Q4. How many seasons of agriculture according to Ain?

Ans. According to Ain-i-Akbari, agriculture was organized around the two major seasonal cycles – The kharif and the rabi.
Kharif – rice and jawar. Rabi – wheat and gram

Q5. What was Jins-i-Kamil?

Ans. Literally perfect crops. Example - cotton and sugarcane.

B. Short Questions (05 marks each)

Q6. Describe the functions of panchayat?

Ans. 1. Community welfare – Construction of bund or digging the cannel which peasants usually could not afford to do on their own.

2. Arrangements against natural calamities, like floods, famine, Droughts etc.

3. Regulate rural societies, like marriage and caste.

4. To ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities

5. Punishment – Example - to levy fines and inflict from the community.

Q7. Describe Ain-i-Akbari?

Ans. 1. Vision of Akbar’s empire.

2. Strong ruling class.

3. The organization of the court, administration and the army.

4. Included detailed revenue, records – with the help of Todarmal tried to reorganized the hole revenue system.

5. Useful description of agrarian society.

Q8. What were the role played by women in agrarian society?

Ans. 1. Women worked shoulder to shoulder with men in fields.  

Please click the link below to download pdf file for CBSE Class XII History - Peasant, Zamidars and State.

Tags: 

 


Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more History Study Material

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

Keep your kids engaged during Lockdown

Kids are the Future of our Country! Outlines have changed and so should the formats of existence! It is the best time to teach our kids the pleasure of Self-Discipline, Self-Realization and Self-Control. To keep the future generation safe in such unpredictable...

Conduct of the practical work during the lockdown

CBSE has advised schools to follow the Alternative Calendar developed by NCERT to continue education during the lockdown through alternative modes to achieve learning outcomes. Schools have reportedly started using these calendars and other prescribed pedagogical...

Revised SOP preventive measures followed while conducting examinations

Revised SOP on preventive measures to be followed while conducting examinations to contain spread of COVID-19 issued by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Examination centres are frequented by large number of students (as well as their parents) and staff till the...

×
Studies Today