CBSE Class 12 History Colonialism And The Countryside Notes

CBSE Class XII History - Colonialism and the Countryside. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

THEME – 10


Key concepts in nutshell

• Bengal - Establishment of colonial rule - New land revenue, Auction system under Warren Hastings – 1793, Permanent Revenue settlement in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis.

• Crises in village economy, revenue demand of the state was fixed.

• The rise of the Jotedars, Their land was cultivated through share croppers.

• Resistance of Zamindars, their land was auctioned frequently.

• The fifth report –report submitted to British parliament 1813

• The Hoe and the Ploug – Shifting agriculture, expensive of village economy.

• Paharias -hunters food gathers connected with forests, invaded settled farmers 1770

• Santhals – Settled in bangal- practiced cultivation land demarcated to them known as Daman-i-koh.

• Conflicts with unsettled paharias -1850 – they resisted the British – Santhal revolt.

• Revolt in the Bombey and Deccan - 1875

• Burning of account book of money lenders and shop keepers

• New revenue System – Ryotwari system in Bombey Deccan – Direct settlement , land assessed for 30 yrs subject to periodic revision

• Experience of injustice by peasants.

2 Marks Questions-

Q.1 What was Permanent Settlement? 2

Ans. The practice of collecting land revenue introduced by Lord Cornwalis in 1793 is known as permanent settlement. In this system the land was given to landlords (Zamindars) permanently. The amount of revenue had been fixed in permanent settlement.

Q.2 Explain the ryotwari system of revenue. 2

Ans. The revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan came to be known as ryotwari. In this system, the revenue was directly settled with the ryot. The average incomes from different types of soil was estimated. The revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.

Q.3 What was Deeds of hire? 2

Ans. When debts mounted the peasants were unable to pay back the loan to the moneylender. They had no option but to give over all land under their possession, carts and animals to the money lenders. But without animals they could not continue to cultivate. So they took land on rent and animals on hire. Now they had to pay for them which had originally belonged to them. He had to sign a Deed of hire stating very clearly that these animals and carts did not belong to them.

Q.4 Who were santhals? What are the two features of their lives? 2

Ans. They were the tribes living in the foothills of Rajmahal hills. They cultivated their fields by plough and much civilized then the Paharias.

Q.5 What do you understand by Deccan riots commission?

Ans. The commission which was set up to investigate the riots of Deccan’s farmer in 1875. It was set up by the government of Bombay due to immense pressure of Government of India. Its report was presented in 1878 before the British Parliament.

Q.6 Who were Jotedars? 2

Ans. The group of rich farmers were known as Jotedars. They controlled local trade as well as money lending, exercising immense power over the poorer cultivator’s of the region.

5 Marks Questions-

Q.7 Why Zamindars defaulted on payments? 5

Ans. The reasons for this failure were various-

(i) The initial demands of tax were very high, because the company felt that if the demand was fixed for all time to come they would never be able to claim for high shares in the condition of increased income.

(ii) This high demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed, making it difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the zamindar. If the Zamindar could not collect the rent, how could he pay the company? 

(iii) The revenue was invariable, regardless of the harvest, and had to be paid punctually.

(iv) The permanent settlement initially limited the power of the Zamindars to collect rent from the ryot and manage his zamindari. 

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