CBSE Class 12 History Kinship Caste And Class In Early Societies Notes

CBSE Class XII History - Kinship, Caste and Class in Early Societies. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.



(600 BC-600CE)

Key concepts in nutshell

• Many rules and different practices were followed by the people.

• Very often families were part of larger networks of people we define as relatives.

• Blood relations can be defined in many different ways.

• Mausmriti is considered the most o important Dharma Sutra and Dharmashastra. It was compiled between 200 BCE and 200 CE. This laid down rules governing social life.

• During Mahabharata age gotras were considered very important by higher verna of societies.

• Social differences prevailed and integration took place within the framework of caste system.

 According to the sutras only Kashtriyas could be a king.

 The original version of Mahabharata is in Sanskrit.

•It contains vivid descriptions of battles forest, palaces and settlements.

Q1. What do you mean by the term epic? 2

Ans. Epic means a larger poetic text which narrates the life and achievements of the heroes or the past of a nation.

Q2. Give Two Importance of Manusmriti? 2

Ans. (i) It gives vital information about law and social practices.

(II) It influences the Hindu way of life even today.

Q3. Why the war Mahabharata was fought? What was its result? 2

Ans. The war of Mahabharata was fought to acquire land and authority. The war was won by the Pandavas.

Q4. What do you mean by term kula and Jati? 2

Ans. Sanskrit texts use the term kula to designate families and jati for the larger network of kinfolk .

Q.5 What is endogamy? 2

Ans. Endogamy refers to marriage within a unit. This could be a kin, group, caste or a group living in the same locality.

Q6. What did B.B.Lal note about the houses in the second phase of Mahabharata period Explain? 5

Ans. B.B.lal has given a description about the houses in the second phase. He noted that within the limited area excavated, no definite plans of houses were obtained, but walls of mud and mud bricks were duly encountered. The discovery of mud plaster with prominent reed marks suggested that some of the houses had reed walls plastered over with mud.

Q7. In what ways was the Buddhist theory of a social contract different from the Brahmanical view of society derived from the Purusha sukta? 5

Ans. (I) The Purusha sukta says that four varnas emerged from the Purasha sukta .

(II) These varnas where Brahamans, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudras.

(III) The Bramahans enjoyed the supreme position in the society.

(IV) The Kshatriyas where worriers, they ran the administration.

(IV) The Vaishaya were engaged in trade. The Shudras where destined to serve the three Varnas.

(V) Only the birth was the basis of status and respect in the society.

The Buddhism did not accept this concept. They believe that the inequality in the society was artificial and temporary. They rejected birth as the basis of social prestige.

Q8. Explain the relationship between the Varna system and the occupation according to Brahmanical texts. How did the Brahmanas reinforce these? 5

Ans. Relatonship between the varna system and occupation according to Brahmanical texts:

(I) Brahmanas- study and teach the vedas,perform sacrifices.

(II) Kshtriyas –study the vedas , get sacrifice performed and engage in warfare ,protect people and administer justice.

(III) Vaishyas-study the vedas,get sacrifices performed and engaged in agriculture and trade.

(IV) Shudras-assigned only one occupation-that of serving the three higher varnas.

The Bramanas enforced these by:

(a) Divine origin.

(b) Advising kings to enforce the order.

(c) Caste based on birth.

Q9. The rules of the Brahmanical texts were not universally followed in ancient time. Justify giving five evidence. 5
Ans. Brahmanical texts were not universally followed in ancient times:

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