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Revision Notes for Class 12 History Theme III Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
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Theme III Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era Notes Class 12 History
Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
Key concepts in nutshell
• The Indian constitution was framed between Dec.1946 & Dec.1949.
• The Indian constitution came into effect on 26th Jan.1950.
• The members of the constituent Assembly were elected on the basis of the provincial elections of 1946.
• The total member of the constituent Assembly were 300.
• Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee, and played important role in the constituent Assembly.
• on the the 13 Ced.1946 Nehru moved the “Objective Resolution” in the constituent Assembly.
• An interim Government was made under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
• There was a vigorous debate in the constituent Assembly on the topic of the central Government and the state.
• The language issue was debated for many months within the constituent assembly.
• Mahatma Gandhi believed that every one should talk a language which even common man could be able to understand
QUESTIONS AND ANSWER –
Question. Who did move the crucial ‘Objectives Resolution’?
Answer. The Crucial Resolution was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Question. Why was the new constitution of Independent India introduced on 26 January 1950 ?
Answer. Because it was the 20th anniversary of the historical day on which the Congress had declared Complete Independence as its final goal.
Question. Which were the two main dissents of the Indian Constitution?
Answer. i) Its being written primarily in English.
ii) Requirement of no educational qualification for any of the post enshrined in it.
Question. When was the Drafting Committee formed? Who was its chairman?
Answer. The Drafting Committee was formed on 29 August 1947. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was its chairman.
Question. When and under which scheme the Constituent Assembly was formed ?
Answer. The Constituent Assembly was formed in October 1946 as per the Cabinet Mission Scheme.
Question. When and under whose Presidentship the first session of all India States People’s Conference was held ?
Answer. The first session of all India States People’s Conference was held in 1927 under the presidentship of Diwan Bahadur, M. Ramchan Rai the renowned leader of Ellore.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi think Hindustani should be the National language?
Answer. By the 1950s, the Congress had accepted that Hindustani ought to be the national language. Mahatma Gandhi felt that every one should speak in a language that common people could easily understand.
Hindustani – a blend of Hindi and Urdu – was a popular language of a large section of the people of India, and it was a composite language enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures. Over the years it had incorporated words and terms from very many different sources, and was therefore understood by people from various regions. This multi – cultural language, Mahatma Gandhi thought would be the ideal language of communication between diverse communities: it could unify Hindus and Muslims, and people of the north and south.
Question. Why is the Indian constitution acceptable to the Indian people even today?
Answer. a) The Indian Constitution is acceptable to all because it was base.
b) Even though there was no universal adult Franchise at that time. The constituent assembly consisted of people of all regions and communities making it a miniature India.
c) Eminent people like Maulana Azad and women like Sarojini Naidu played an important part in the constituent assembly as did people of all casts and creeds.
d) Furthermore, the constituent assembly worked in a systematic and open manner.
e) The basic principles were agreed upon, then a draft constitution was prepared for discussion.
f) The draft constitution was discussed thoroughly clause by clause for nearly 3 years before being finalized.
g) Every individual is free to follow. Preach, or profess his/her own religion. There is no state religion.
Question. How was the term minority defined by different groups?
Answer. The term minority was defined by different groups in the following ways:
i. Ambedkar demanded separate group for the minority races.
ii. Hindus and Sikhs, live in so-called Pakistan were not considered as minority race.
iii. Members demanded the representation on behalf of the minority in the Constitution.
iv. Nagappa demanded minority status for the HarijAnswer.
v. Ambedkar demanded separate Constitution for the minorities.
Question. What was the ‘language controversy, before the Constitution Assembly and how did it seek to resolve the controversy?
Answer. Language Controversy:
· Hindustani (Hindi+Urdu) started getting separate due to communal parties.
· Language became politicized for communal identity.
· R.V. Dhulkar supported Hindi to be made language of the Constitution.
· It created a furor (debate) in the Constituent Assembly which was mediated by Pt. Jawahar lal Nehru.
· Proceeded slow to make Hindi as the National Language.
· Some supported official work to be continued for 15 years in English.
· After implementation of the Constitution and Provinces to choose regional language for daily work.
· Constituent Assembly :
i. Hindi – Not National Language.
ii. But not Rajbhasha
Question. What was was the Objectives Resolution?What were the ideals expressed in the Objectives Resolution?
Answer. It was Jawaharlal Nehru who presented Objectives Resolution in the Constituent Assembly on 13th December, 1946. He proposed that the National Flag of India be a ‘horizontal tricolour of saffron, white and dark green in equal proportion’, with a wheel in navy blue at the centre. It outlined and defined the ideals and objectives of the Constituitiion which are as follows:
1. India was declared as independent sovereign Republic.
2. It assured justice , equality, liberty and fraternity to all its citizens.
3. It provided adequate safeguards to minorities.
4. It referred to the well being of the backward and depressed classes.
5. India would combine the liberal ideas of democracy with socialist idea of economic Justice.
6.India would adopt that form of government which would be acceptable to its people. No imposition from the British would be accepted by the Indian people.
7.India would be a federation.
8.India would work for world peace and human welfare.
SOURCE BASED QUESTIONS –
Read the given passage carefully and answer the Questions that follow –
“Govind Ballabh Pant argued that in order to become a loyal citizen. People had focusing only on the community and the self. For the success of Democracy one must train himself in the art of self–discipline. In democracies one should care less for himself and more for others. There can not be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred round the State. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties, or you create a system in which any individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares nought for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.’’
Question. Give three attributes of a loyal citizen in a democracy according to G. B. Pant.
Answer. i) He must train himself in the art of self discipline.
ii) He should care less for himself and more for others.
Question. What do you understand by ‘Separate Electorate’ ?
Answer. Under provisions of the government of India Act, 1909. Separate electorates were made for the Muslims. Only Muslims could be elected from these constituencies. According to the British Administrators it was done in order to safe guard the interests of the Muslims minority.
Question. Why was the demand for Separate Electorate made during the drafting of the Constitution?
Answer. Some members of the Constituent Assembly felt that a meaningful participation of the minorities in the governance could be ascertained only by the system of separate electorates. They made a strong plea to continue this system.
Question. Why was G. B. Pant against this demand? Give two reason.
Answer. Govind Ballabh Pant felt that –
i) If, by the system of the Separate Electorate, the minorities are isolated for ever, they can never be able to convert themselves into a majority.
ii) The minorities, if they are returned by Separate Electorates, can never have any effective voice in the governance.
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