CBSE Class XII History - Bricks, Beads and Bones. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
THEME : 01
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION
Key conceps in nutshells
Period :- ( I ) Early Harappa culture – Before 2600 BCE
(II) Mature Harappa culture-2600BCE to 1900 BCE
( III ) Late Harappa culture- After 1900 BCE
Extent of Harappan civilisation :-
Northern boundary-Manda Southern Boundary-DaimabadEastern boundary- Alamgirpur Western boundary-Sutkagendor
Characteristics of the Harappan Civilisation :-
Two Sections :- ( I ) The Citadel
( II ) The Lower Town
• Carefully planned drainage system.
• At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits.
• Seals and sealings were used to facilitate long distance communication.
• Exchanges were regulated by a precise system of weignts, usually made of a stone called Chert and generally cubical, with no markings.
• Some archaeologist are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, whereas other archaeologist feel that there was no single ruler but several rulers.
• Several explanation for the decline of Harappan civilisation are Climatic changes, deforestation, excessive floods, the shifting and/or drying up of rivers.
Metals known :- Gold, Silver, Copper, Bronze.
Scripts :- The Harappan scripts are undeciphered. There are 375-400 signs. The script was written from right to left.
Craft :- The place Chanhudaro was totally involved for craft production. There were experts in bead makings, shell cutting, seal making, weight making. Lothal was also one of the important place for craft production.
Modes of Transportation :- Bullock carts and Boats.
Q.1 List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained. (2)
Ans. The variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: stones like carnelian (of a beautiful red colour), jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
Two methods of procuring materials for craft production :-
1. They established settlements such as Nageshwar, Shortughai and Balakot.
2. They might have sent expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for Copper) and south India (for gold).
Q.2 “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments? (2)
Ans. Yes, our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other because of the following reasons:-
· The script of that age has hitherto not been deciphered.
· The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations such as that of Egypt, Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function and religion etc. of any Civilizations
Q.3 What were the confusions in the mind of Cunningham while studying Harappan civilization ? (2)
Ans. · He used the accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries CE.
· He thought that Indian history began with the first cities in the Ganga valley.
· In fact, Cunningham’s main interest was in the archaeology of the Early Historic (c. sixth century BCE-fourth century CE) and later periods.
Q.4 What were the differences in the techniques adopted by Marshall and Wheeler in studying Harappan civilization ? (2)
Ans. · Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site.
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