# CBSE Class 12 Geography The world Population Assignment

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## Assignment for Class 12 Geography Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution Density And Growth

Class 12 Geography students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution Density And Growth in Class 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Class 12 Geography will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

### Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution Density And Growth Class 12 Geography Assignment

Patterns of Population Distribution
- Population distribution means arrangement distribution of people over the earth’s surface.
- Population is not evenly distributed as 90 percent of the world’s population lives in about 10 percent of its land area.
- The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s population.
- Out of these 10 countries, 6 are located in Asia.

Density of Population
- This means the ratio between the number of people to the size of the land.
- It is usually measured in persons per sq km density of population/area.

Factors Influencing Population Distribution
- The population distribution is influenced by three factors i.e., geographical factors, economic factors and social and cultural factors.

Geographical Factors
Environmental or natural factors such as landforms, fertile soil, suitable climate for cultivation and availability of adequate source of fresh water are the geographical factors that affect the population distribution.

Some geographical factors are:
- Land Forms Flat Plains and gentle slopes are preferred by people, because these are favorable for the production of crops and to build roads and industries.
- Climate Area with less seasonal variation attract more people.
- Soil Area which have fertile loamy soil have more people living on them as these can support intensive agriculture.
- Water People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. Because, it is the most important factor for life.

Economic Factors
Places having employment opportunities like mineral rich areas, industrial units and urban centres have high concentration of population. Some economic factors are:
- Industrialisation Industries provide job opportunities and attract large numbers of ‘ people.
- Minerals Minerals deposits attract industries 1 mining and industrial activities generate
- employment.
- Urbanisation Good civic amenities and the attention of city life draw people to the cities.

Social and Cultural Factors
- Places having religious importance and cultural significance are also very densely populated areas.

Population Growth
- This refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time.
- When change in population is expressed in percentage, then it is called Growth Rate of Population.
- When there is an increase in population by taking the difference between births and deaths, then it is called Natural Growth of Population.
- There is also Positive Growth of Population which happens when birth rate is more than death rate and Negative Growth of Population when birth rate is lower than death rate.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population change i.e., births, deaths and migration.

Crude Birth Rate [CBR]
- Number of births in a year per thousand of population is expressed as Crude Birth Rate (CBR). It is calculated as:
- CBR=BiP×100
- Here, Bi= live Births during the year; P = Mid year population of the area.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Number of deaths in a year per thousand of population is expressed as Crude Death Rate (CDR). It is calculated as:
- CDR=DP×100
- Here, D= Number of Deaths; P= Estimated mid-year population of that year.

Migration
- It is movement of people across region on permanent, temporary or seasonal basis.
- The place they move is called place of origin and the place they move to is called place of destination.

Push and Pull Factors of Migration
- The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive for reasons like unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
- The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like better job opportunities and living condition eace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

Trends in Population Growth
- Trends show that initially growth of population was very slow but after the improvement in Science and Technology, there had been tremendous growth in population which is called population explosion.
- About 8000 to 12000 years ago world population was 8 million and now it has reached to 7 billion.
- In every 12 years, 1 billion people are added. Increased agriculture and industrial production, inoculation against epidemics, improvement in medical facilities have reduced death rates.

Doubling Time of World Population
- Developed countries are taking more time to double their population as compared to developing countries.

Spatial Pattern of Population Change
- The world population growth rate is 1.4%, it is highest in Africa i.e. 2.6% and lowest in Europe i.e. 0.0% means neither grow nor decline.
- So even when a small annual rate is applied to very large population, it will lead to a large population change. There is negative correlation between economic development and population growth.

Impact of Population Change
- High increase in population leads to problems like depletion of natural resources, unemployment and scarcity. Decline in population indicates that resources are insufficient to maintain a population.

Demographic Transition Theory
This theory studies the changes in the population of a region as it moves from high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths. This happens when a society progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to urban, industrial and literate.
There are three-staged model of Demographic Transition Theory. They are:

First Stage
- This stage is marked by high fertility high mortality rate because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics and variable food supply.
- People are poor, illiterate and mostly engaged in agriculture. Life expectancy is low and population growth is slow.

Second Stage
- Level of technology increases and other facilities like medical, health, sanitation improves due to which the death rate reduces.
- But the fertility rate and birth rate remains high due to which there is huge rise in population. Population expands rapidly as there is wide gap between birth and death rate.

Third Stage
- The birth and death rate both reduces and the population moves towards stability.
- People become literate, urbanised and control the size of the family. There is good judicious use of technology also.

Population Control Measures
- Family planning is the spacing and preventing the birth of children. Thomas Malthus theory (1793) states that the number of people would grow faster than the food supply thus leading to famine, diseases and war.
- Therefore, it is essential to control the population. This is undertaken through measures like awareness for family planning, free availability of contraceptives, tax disincentives and active propaganda.

Question. Who mentioned regarding the population control that preventive checks are better than the physical checks?
a. Thompson
b. Thomas Malthus
c. Ralph Waldo Emerson
d. Tailor

Question. Which is measured in terms of person's per sq km.?
a. Growth of population
b. Immigration of population
c. Density of population
d. Emigration of population

Question. Which region were inhabited from early periods in history due to the present climate?
a. Savannah region
b. Pampas
c. Prairie
d. Mediterranean region

Question. Kobe- Osaka region is in
a. Japan
b. India
c. Indonesia
d. Africa

Question. Assertion : The annual population growth rate in India is 1.6 % .
Reason: Some developed countries will take 318 years to double their population.
a. Assertion (A) correct and reason (R) is incorrect.
b. Assertion ( A) is incorrect and reason (R) is correct
c. Assertion is correct and reason is also correct but it is not the right reason for the Assertion (A)
d. None of these is correct.

Question. Migrants who are moving to a new place is called ---------
a. Emigration
b. Immigrants
c. Emigrants
d. Immigration

Question. CBR = Bi/P*1000. Here P refers to
a. Population of an area
b. Population growth
c. Population birth
d. Mid year population of an area

Question. Who stated "Asia has many places where people are few and few places where people are very many"?
a. Hartshorne
b. George B Cressey
c. Malthus
d. None of them

Question. What is the demographic transition model?
a. A graph that plots changes in birth and death rates and migration over time and shows how the population grows in response.
b. A graph that plots changes in birth and death rates over time and shows how the population grows in response.
c. A graph that plots changes in infant mortality and people per doctor over time and shows how the population grows in response.
d. A graph that plots changes in child mortality and death rates over time and shows how the population grows in response

Question.Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer
I. The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.
II. Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract large numbers of people
a. Only I is correct.
b. Only II is correct
c. Both the statements are incorrect
d. Both statements are correct and statement II correctly explains the statement

Study the graph carefully and answer the questions that follow

Question. When was the stage for rapid population growth set up?
a. During sixteenth century
b. During eighteenth century
c. During fifteenth century
d. During twentieth century

Question. What was the reason behind the population growth in question 1
a. Agricultural development
b. Industrial revolution
d. Technological revolution.

Question. When did population explosion take place?
a. During sixteenth century
b. During eighteenth century
c. During fifteenth century
d. During twentieth century

Question. What was the impact of technological advancement on world population?
a. Reduction in birth rate
b. Decrease in population
c. Reduction in death rate
d. Increase in birth rate

Question. Among the top ten countries with the highest population, how many countries are located in Asia?
a. Six
b. Four
c. Nine
d. Two

Question. How many countries of Africa are included in the top ten most populous countries?
a. Three
b. One
c. Two
d. Four

Question. Ten most populous countries make up %of world’s population
a. 65%
b. 55%
c. 60%
d. 50%

Question. Why are the people of a country considered its real wealth ?
Answer. The people of a country are its real wealth because it is they who make use of the country’s resources and decide its policies

Question. Define the term population distribution
Answer. The term population distribution refers to the way people are spaced over the earth’s surface

Question. What is the meaning of density of population? Explain with examples four geographical factors influencing the distribution of population in the world.
Answer. Density of population is the number of people living in a square kilometer of area.
Density of population =population/Area.
Geographical factors influencing distribution of population are
1. Availability of water-people prefers to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. River valleys are therefore the most densely populated areas of the world. Eg- Gangetic plains are densely populated
2. Landforms: people prefer living on flat plains and gentle slopes. The mountainous and hilly areas are less populated. Eg- Himalayan region are sparsely populated.
3. Climate: extreme climate are uncomfortable for human habitation. Areas with comfortable climate attract more people. Eg- Mediterranean region is densely populated.
4. Soils: areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them as these can support intense agriculture. Eg- Nile Delta

Question. When does the positive growth of population take place?
Answer. When the birth rate is more than the death rate between two points of time or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region positive growth of population takes place

Question. Which are the two sets of factors that influence migration in the world? Explain both the set of factors with suitable examples
Answer. The two sets of factors that influence migration in the world are
Push factors makes the place of origin seems less attractive- unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil,, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics, socio economic backwardness.
Pull factors makes the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin - better job opportunities, peace and stability, security of life and property, pleasant climate.

Question. What does the Theory of Demographic Transition tell us?
Answer. This theory tells us that population of any region changes form high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths as society progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to urban industrial and literate society.

 CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Bank in Hindi
 CBSE Class 12 Geography Fundamental of Human Geography Assignment
 CBSE Class 12 Geography The world Population Assignment
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