CBSE Class 12 Geography Transport and Communication Assignment

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Transport And Communication Class 12 Geography Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Geography students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Transport And Communication in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Geography will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Geography Assignment for Transport And Communication

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONQuestion.

GIST OF THE LESSON

LAND TRANSPORT
ROADS
- Economical for short distance
- Offer door to door service
- Unmetalled roads not effective and serviceable for all seasons
- Worlds total motorable road length-15 million km[33% north America]
- Highest road density-North America[continent] Japan[country]
- Highest number of vehicles-north America

SOLUTIONS OF URBAN TRANSPORT PROBLEMS
- Higher parking fee
- Mass rapid transit
- Improved public bus service
- Express ways

Highways
- Metalled roads connecting distant places
- 80m wide with separate traffic lanes
- Constructed for unobstructed vehicular movement
- Highway density is high in North America [0.65 km per sq km]
- Every place is within 20 km distance from a highway.

- Trans Canadian high way
o Vancouver to St John’s

- Alaskan highway
o Edmonton[Canada] to Anchorage[Alaska]

- Pan American highway
o Will connect south America, central America, USA and Canada

- Transcontinental Stuart highway Australia
o Darwin-Melbourne
- Trans Canadian Highway

- Russia
o Moscow -Vladivostok high way

- India
o NH-7 Varanasi-Kanyakumari is the longest highway
o Golden quadrilateral[super Expressway]- connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata

- Africa
o Algiers to Conakry in Guinea
• Cairo- Cape town

Border roads
- Roads laid along international boundaries
- Connects remote areas with major cities
- Imp for defence-connects military camps

RAILWAYS
- Transport bulky goods
- Passenger over long distances
- Railway gauges
o Broad gauge[greater than 1.5m]
o Standard[1.44m]
o Meter gauge[1m]
o Smaller gauge[less than 1m]

- Commuter trains-
o Trains that carry passengers to and from the cities
o Popular in UK, USA, Japan and India
- Europe has most dense rail network in the world
- Highest rail density- Belgium 1km/6.5km2
- Underground railway important in London and Paris
- Channel tunnel connects London with Paris

Transcontinental railways
Railways that run across the continent and link its two ends
Trans Siberian railway
o In Russia
o St Petersburg to Vladivostok
o Longest-9332km
o Double tracked
o Electrified
o Connects Asian region to west European market
o Chita-agro centre
o Irkutsk- fur centre
o Connection with Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, china

Trans Canadian railway
o Connect Halifax to Vancouver
o 7050km
o Constructed for political reason
o Connects Quebec Montreal industrial region with the wheat belt of the Prairie region and the coniferous forest region in the north
o Loop line-Winnipeg-thunder Bay- connect with great lakes waterway
o Called economic artery of Canada
o Wheat and meat are the important exports on this route

The Australian Trans Continental railway
o From Perth to Sydney[runs east west]
o North south line-Adelaide-Alice spring to Darwin- Birdum

The Union and Pacific Railway
o Connects New York [Atlantic coast] to San Francisco[Pacific coast]
o Exports- ores, grain, paper, chemicals, machinery

Orient Express
o From Paris to Istanbul
o The journey time from London to Istanbul reduced to 96 hours against 10 days by sea route
o Exports- cheese, bacon, oats, wine, fruits, machinery

Trans Asiatic Railway [proposed]
o Istanbul to Bangkok[Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar]

WATER TRANSPORT
Advantages of water transport
1. Provide smooth highway traversable in all directions
2. There is no maintenance cost
3. It is much cheaper because the friction of water is less than that of land
4. Does not require route construction
5. The energy cost is lower
6. Ideal for carrying bulky goods over long distances from one continent to other.
7. Environment friendly

Water transport is divided into
1. Ocean routes
2. Inland waterways

Improvements in water transport
o Ships equipped with radar, wireless and other navigation aids
o Refrigerated chambers for perishable goods
o Tankers
o Use of containers [cargo handling easier]

Important ocean routes
1. The north Atlantic Sea Route
2. The south Atlantic sea route
3. The Mediterranean -Indian Ocean route
4. The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
5. The North Pacific Sea Route
6. The South Pacific Sea Route

MAJOR OCEAN TRADE ROUTES
THE NORTH ATLANTIC SEA ROUTE
- This links north eastern USA and north western Europe[industrially developed regions of the world]
- The foreign trade over this route is greater than that of the rest of the world combined
- One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route
- It is the busiest ocean trade route of the world
- It is called the Big Trunk Route
- Both the coasts have highly advanced ports and harbour facilities

The South Atlantic sea route
o Connects west European and west African countries with brazil, Argentina and Uruguay
o The traffic is less compared to north Atlantic sea route because

7. limited development and population in south America and Africa
8. south America and Africa both have similar products and resources

THE MEDITERRANEAN –INDIAN OCEAN ROUTE
o This route connects the developed countries of the Europe in the west with developing countries of east Africa, south Asia and south east Asia through the Mediterranean sea, the red sea and the Indian ocean
o Important ports- port Said, Aden, Mumbai, Colombo, Singapore

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE SEA ROUTE
o This route connects Western European region with west Africa, south Africa, south east Asia and Australia and new Zealand
o This is 6400km longer than the Suez canal route[Liverpool and Colombo]
o The volume of trade from both east and west Africa is on the increase due to the development of the rich natural resource[ gold, diamond, oil palm, copper ]

THE NORTH PACIFIC ROUTE
o Trade across north pacific ocean moves by several routes which converge at Honolulu
o This sea route links the ports on the west coast of North America with those of Asia
o Important ports are Vancouver, san Francisco, Yokohoma, manila and Singapore

THE SOUTH PACIFIC SEA ROUTE
o Connects western Europe and north America with Australia, new Zealand and the scattered pacific islands via the panama canal
o This route is also used for reaching Hong Kong, Philippines and Indonesia
- Honolulu is an important port on this route

Coastal shipping
o Convenient mode of transportation in countries with long coastlines
o Eg- USA, china, India
o Shenshen states in Europe are most suitably placed for coastal shipping
o Can reduce congestion on the land route

Shipping canals
o The Suez and the Panama canals are two vital man made navigation canals or waterways

The Suez Canal
o Connects Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
o About 160 kms long, 11 to 15m deep
o A sea level canal without locks
o Constructed in 1869 in Egypt
o Terminal ports are Port Said[north] and Port Suez [south]
o Reduces distance between Europe and S.E.Asia
o About 100 ships travel daily and each ship takes 10-12 hours to cross this canal
o The tolls are high so some ship use the longer cape route whenever consequent delay is not important
o A navigable fresh water canal from the Nile also joins the suez canal in Ismailia.
o A railway line follows the canal to suez and from Ismailia there is a branch line to Cairo

The Panama Canal -
o Connects Atlantic ocean[east] and Pacific ocean [west]
o 72 kms long
o It has 6 lock systems
o It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13000 km by sea
o Constructed by US government across the Panama Isthmus
o Terminal ports are panama and Colon
o US government purchased 8 km of area on either side and name it the canal zone
o Panama handles 5 % of worlds shipping

Inland waterways
o Rivers, canals, lakes, coastal areas

Development of inland waterways dependent on
o Navigability [width, depth] of the channel
o Continuity in water flow
o Transport technology in use

Lost importance-Reasons
o Competition from railways
o Lack of water due to diversion for irrigation
o Poor maintenance

Measures for development
1. Enhance navigability by dredging
2. Stabilizing river banks
3. Building dams/barrages for regulating the flow of water

Rhine waterway
o From Basel[Switzerland ]to Rotterdam[Netherlands]-700 km
o World’s most heavily used waterway
o Connects the industrial area of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and Netherlands with the north Atlantic sea route

Danube waterway
o Serves eastern Europe
o From black forest in Germany to Black sea

The Great Lakes-St Lawrence seaway
o Lakes- Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario are connected by Soo canal and Welland canal
o Commercial waterway in the northern part of north America
o The ports on this route equipped with all facilities of ocean ports
o Large ocean vessels are navigable in this route[upto montreal]
o canals constructed to avoid rapids

The Mississippi waterway
o Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects interior USA with gulf of Mexico
o Up to Minneapolis large streams are navigable

AIR TRANSPORT
Advantages
o Fastest
o Can reach inaccessible areas
o Strategically important

Disadvantages
o Costly
o Construction of airport very expensive
o Manufacturing of air crafts and its operations require elaborate infrastructure

Intercontinental air routes
o Dense network in eastern USA, west Europe, SE Asia
o USA accounts for 60% of airways of the world
o Africa, Asiatic part of Russia and South America lack air services
o Limited air services between 10-35  S latitudes- reasons
o Sparse population
1. Limited land mass
2. Low economic development

Pipelines
o For transport of liquids and gases-water, petroleum and natural gas
o Also used to transport liquefied coal
o USA has dense network of pipelines
o Eg- Big Inch-carries petroleum from gulf of Mexico to NE states of USA

Communications
o Telephones-use of optic fibre cables instead of copper cables

Advantages
- Allows transmission of large quantity of data
- Rapid and secure transmission of data
- Error free transmission

Satellite communication
o Emergence due to space research of USA and USSR
o Unit cost and time is less invariant in terms of distance
o India-use for long distance communication, television and radio, weather forecasting

Cyber space
o It is the electronic digital world for communicating or accessing information over computer network without physical movement of the sender and the receiver
o Major internet users- USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China and India

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Question. Which of the following mean of transportation is not suitable to carry peoples from one place to another place?
a. Railways
b. Pipelines
c. Aeroplane
d. Ropeway
Answer. Pipelines

Question. The first public railway line was opened in 1825 in northern England between which of the following places?
a. Between Stockton and Darlington
b. Between Stockton and Birmingham
c. Between Darlington and Dortmund
d. Between Darlington and Birmingham
Answer. Between Stockton and Darlington

Question. In which of the following continent highest road density and highest number of vehicles are registered?
a. Western Europe
b. Africa
c. Australia
d. Northern America
Answer. Northern America

Question. Which of the following highway links Edmonton in Canada to Anchorage in Alaska?
a. Alaskan Highway
b. Trans Canadian Highway
c. Pan American Highway
d. None of the above
Answer. Alaskan Highway

Question. Which of the following is the longest highway of India?
a. National Highway No. 4
b. National Highway No. 7
c. National Highway No. 9
d. National Highway No. 15
Answer. National Highway No. 7

Question. Which of the following factor is responsible for the low traffic on the south Atlantic sea route as compared to the South Atlantic Ocean sea route?
a. Low population and limited development in South America and Africa
b. Production of same commodities and availability of same resources as well in South America and Africa
c. Low level of technology
d. Both (a) and (b)
Answer. Both (a) and (b)

 

VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Question. What is a transport network?
Answer. Several places [nodes] joined together by a series of routes [links] to form a pattern

Question. When and where was the first public railway line opened?
Answer. Between Stockton and Darling ton in 1825

Question. Which country has the highest road density in the world
Answer. Japan

Question. Name the tunnel which joins London with Paris.
Answer. Channel Tunnel

Question. What are commuter trains?
Answer. Trains- that carry passengers to and from the cities

Question. What is transcontinental railway?
Answer. Railways that run across the continent and link its two ends

Question. Name the places connected by the union and pacific railway line.
Answer. Connects New York [Atlantic coast] to San Francisco [Pacific coast]

Question. Name the terminal stations of the orient express railway
Answer. From Paris to Istanbul

Question. Why is the traffic less on the Cape of Good Hope sea route? Give two reasons
Answer. The traffic is far less on the Cape of Good Hope Route because of -
i) Limited development of this route.
ii) More time consuming

Question. How much percentage of world shipping is handled by the Panama Canal?
Answer. 5%

Question. Which is the most important riverine inland waterway of Russia?
Answer. The Volga waterway

Question. Which is the famous petroleum pipeline of USA?
Answer. Big Inch

Question. What is internet? Or what is cyber space
Answer. It is the electronic digital world for communicating or accessing information over computer network without physical movement of the sender and the receiver

Question. Name the countries having majority of internet users.
Answer. Major internet users- USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China and India

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Question. Explain the merits and demerits of road transport in the world
Answer. Merits of road transport:
i) Road transport is the most economical for short distances.
ii) It offers door-to-door service.
iii) It plays a vital role in a nation's trade and commerce and for promoting tourism.

Demerits of road transport:
i) During rainy season, un-metalled roads become un-motorable.
ii) Even the metalled roads are seriously handicapped during heavy rains and floods. City roads suffer from chronic traffic congestions.
iii) The quality of roads varies greatly between developed and developing countries because road construction and maintenance require heavy expenditure.

Question. Classify roads into two categories. Explain any four significant features of the road transport of developed countries of the world
Answer. Highways and border roads
a. Developed countries have resources to construct and maintain good quality roads
b. The intensity of vehicular traffic is more
c. In developed countries good quality roads are universal and provide long distance links in the form of motorways, autobahns[Germany] and interstate highways for speedy movement
d. Lorries of increasing size and power to carry heavy loads are common.

Question. What are the three major types of inland waterways of the world? State three factors on which the development of inland waterways depends.
Answer. Types of inland water ways
Rivers, canals., lakes
Factors on which the development of inland waterways depend
1. Navigability width and depth of the channel
2. Continuity of water flow
3. Transport technology in use

Question. What is the significance of inland waterways? explain the three factors responsible for the development of inland waterways in the world
Answer. - Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important inland waterways
- Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers
- Rivers are the only means of transport in dense forests
- Very heavy cargo like coal cement timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways
Factors for development
1. Navigability width and depth of the channel
2. Continuity in the water flow
3. Transport technology in use

Question. Why have inland waterways lost their significance?
Answer. 1. Competition from railways
2. Lack of water due to diversion for irrigation
3. Poor maintenance

 

LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS

Question. Define the term ‘transport’ describe any four features of highways of North America.
Transport is a service or facility for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using humans, animals and different kinds of vehicles
Answer. Features of highways of North America
1. Highway density is high, about 0.65 km per sq km
2. Every place is within 20km distance from a highway
3. Cities located on the pacific coast are well connected with those of the Atlantic coast
4. The cities of Canada in the north are linked with those of Mexico in the south

Question. Suggest any five measures to overcome urban transport problem
Answer. 1. Higher parking fee
2. Mass rapid transit
3. Improved public bus service
4. Express ways
5. Car pooling

Question. What is the importance of roads? Explain any three reasons for the existence of good quality roads in the developed countries?
Answer. 
1. Road transport is the most economical for short distances as compared to railways
2. Freight transport by road is gaining importance because it offers door to door service
3. cost of construction is cheap
4. they can negotiate steep gradient
Reasons
Developed countries have resources to construct and maintain good quality roads
The intensity of vehicular traffic is more
High capacity vehicles which are common need good roads
In developed countries good quality roads are universal and provide long distance links in the form of motorways, autobahns[Germany] and interstate highways for speedy movement

Question. Which is the busiest sea route in the world? Describe its four characteristics.
Answer. The north Atlantic sea route
1. This links north eastern USA and north western Europe[industrially developed regions of the world]
2. The foreign trade over this route is greater than that of the rest of the world combined
3. One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route
4. It is the busiest ocean trade route of the world
5. It is called the Big Trunk Route
6. Both the coasts have highly advanced ports and harbour facilities

Question. Name the principal mode of transportation in the world which is used for carrying liquid and gaseous materials only. Mention any four characteristics of this mode of transportation Principal mode of transporting liquid and gaseous materials
Answer. 
Pipeline

Characteristics of pipeline transportation
1. Used extensively to transport liquid and gases
2. Pipelines can also be used to transport liquefied coal
3. Water, petroleum, natural gas and milk are supplied through pipelines from producing areas to consuming areas
4. About 17 per cent of all freight per tonne-km is carried through pipelines in USA
5. In Europe Russia, West Asia and India pipelines are used to connect oil wells to refineries and to ports and domestic markets
6. Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode

Question. Describe any five achievements of satellite communication in the world ( CBSE2009)
Answer. 
1. Artificial satellites connect even the remote corners of the globe with limited onsite verification
2. These have rendered the unit cost and time of communication invariant in terms of distance
3. It has made long distance communication, television and radio very effective
4. Weather forecasting through television is boon.
5. It connects about 1000 million people in more than 100 countries.

Question. What is satellite communication? How has it brought revolutionary changes in the field of communication in the world? Explain
Answer. Communication through the use of satellite.
1. Artificial satellites connect even the remote corners of the globe with limited onsite verification
2. These have rendered the unit cost and time of communication invariant in terms of distance
3. It has made long distance communication, television and radio very effective
4. Weather forecasting through television is boon.
5. It connects about 1000 million people in more than 100 countries.

Question. Explain the significance of each of the transport and communication services available in the world
Answer. Significance of transport and communication services
Transport
- Transport is a service by which persons and goods are physically carried from one location to another
- It is an organised industry created to satisfy man’s basic needs of mobility
- Modern society requires speedy and efficient transport system to assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods
- The value of the material is significantly enhanced by transportation
- Development directly or indirectly depends on transport services
- In selecting the mode of transport the distance in terms of time or cost is taken into consideration Communication services
- It involves the transmission of ideas and messages
- Initially communications were sent through persons animals and by different means of transport
- The modern development in communication such as mobiles telephones and satellites etc have made communication independent of transport
- The use of telecommunications has revolutionized communications because of theri speed with which messages are sent
- Radio and television helped to relay news and pictures to vast audiences around the world
- Newspapers cover events around the world
- Satellite relays the information of the earth from space
- The internet has revolutionized global communications

DIAGRAM/MAP BASED QUESTIONS

Question. Name the trans-continental railway showing the given map
Answer. Trans Siberian railway

Question. Mention the terminal stations of this railway line
Answer. It runs from St Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast in the east

Question. Write any four characteristics of this transcontinental railway line.
Answer. a. It is a major rail route of Russia
b. It runs from St Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast in the east
c. It passes through Moscow. Ufa, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Chita and Khabarovsk
d. It is the most important route in Asia and the largest[9332km]double tracked and electrified transcontinental railway in the world
e. It has helped in opening up its Asian region with west European markets
f. It runs across Ural mountains, Ob and Yenisei rivers,
g. Chita is an important Agro centre and Irkutsk fur centre
h. These are connecting links to the south namely to Odessa, Ukraine-Baku on the Caspian coast, Tashkent[Uzbekistan],Ulan Bator[Mongolia] and Shenyang[Mukden] and Beijing in china

Question. In which country does this railway line lie?
Answer. Russia

Question. What is the total length of this railway line?
Answer. 9332km

Question. Write down any one significance of this railway line.
Answer. It has helped in opening up Russia’s Asian region with west European markets
 

Question. In which country does this railway line lie?
Answer. Canada

Question. Name the two ocean coasts which are linked by this railway line.
Answer. Atlantic and Pacific

Question. Name the trans-continental railway of North America constructed in 1886.
Answer. Trans Canadian railway

Question. Name the railway line shown in the given map
Answer. Australian Trans Continental Railway

Question. Name the terminal stations of Australian trans-continental railway
Answer. Perth and Sydney

Question. In which country this railway line lies?
Answer. Australia

Question. Name the two ocean coasts which are linked by this railway line.
Answer. Indian ocean and Pacific Ocean

Question. Name the ports located on the coast of Spencer Gulf through which this railway line passes
Answer. Port August and Port Pirie

Question. Name the shipping canal shown in the map
Answer. Suez canal

Question.What do the railway lines and fresh water canal indicate about the relief of the region shown in the map
Answer. The region is a plain

Question. How did relief help in reducing the cost of construction of this shipping canal?
Answer. The cost got reduced as the canal does not require lock system

Question. Which one of the following waterways has drastically reduced the oceanic distance between
Answer. India and Europe.(1) the Rhine waterway (2)the Cape of Good Hope sea route(3)Suez canal and(4) the Panama Canal.
Suez canal

Question. Name the country through which this canal passes
Answer. Egypt

Question. Which two seas are connected by this canal
Answer. Red sea and Mediterranean sea

Question. Write two points of importance of this canal.
Answer. Connects Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Reduces distance between Europe and S.E.Asia

Question. Name the two ports located at the ends of Suez Canal
Answer. Port Said and port Suez

Question. Name any two lakes through which Suez Canal passes
Answer. Great Bitter lake and Little Bitter lake

Question. Name the shipping canal shown in the map
Answer. The Panama Canal

Question. Name the two oceans connected by Panama Canal.
Answer. Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean

Question. Name the terminal ports of this shipping canal.
Answer. Colon and Panama City

Question. Name the country which has constructed this canal
Answer. USA

Question. Why does this canal have lock system?
Answer. For maintaining the water level required for the ship to cross the canal

Question. Why is this canal mostly used by USA
Answer. It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco. So the panama canal
was constructed by the US government

Question. Name the inland waterway of Europe shown in the photograph.
Answer. Rhine waterway

Question. How has this inland waterway been a boon in the development of the countries
Answer. 
1. It is navigable for 700km from Rotterdam to Basel in Switzerland.
2. Ocean going vessels can reach upto Cologne
3. River Ruhr flows through rich coal files and joins river Rhine thus making the whole basin prosperous manufacturing area
4. It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France Belgium and the Netherlands with the north Atlantic sea routes
5. It is the world’s busiest waterway

 

Transport and communication

Transport and communication

 

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