Assignment for Class 12 Geography India People And Economy Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective On Selected Issues And Problems
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India People And Economy Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective On Selected Issues And Problems Class 12 Geography Assignment
GIST OF THE LESSON
● Environmental pollution results from the release of substances and energy from waste products of human activities.
There are many types of pollution.
● They are classified on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused.
● Pollution can be classified into
○ air pollution
○ water pollution
○ land pollution
○ noise pollution.
● Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led to degradation of the quality of water considerably.
● Surface water available from rivers, canals, lakes, etc. is never pure.
● It contains small quantities of suspended particles, organic and inorganic substances.
● When concentration of these substances increases, the water becomes polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use.
WATER POLLUTANTS FROM NATURAL SOURCES
● Decay and decomposition of plants and animals
POLLUTANTS FROM HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Human beings pollute the water through
❖ cultural activities
● Among these activities, industry is the most significant contributor
● Industries produce several undesirable products including industrial wastes, polluted wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed of in running water or lakes.
● Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters.
Major water polluting industries are
❖ pulp and paper
WATER POLLUTION -AGRICULTURE
● Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides are also pollution generating components.
● These chemicals are washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks.
● These chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the groundwater.
● Fertiliser induces an increase in the nitrate content of surface waters.
WATER POLLUTION-CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Cultural activities also cause water pollution
❖ pilgrimage o
❖ religious fairs
WATER POLLUTION- CONSEQUENCES
● In India, almost all surface water sources are contaminated and unfit for human consumption.
● Water pollution is a source of various water- borne diseases.
● The diseases commonly caused due to contaminated water are diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc.
● The World Health Organisation shows that about one-fourth of the communicable diseases in India are water-borne.
● Though river pollution is common to all rivers, yet pollution of river Ganga flowing through one of the most populous regions of India has caused great concerns among all.
● To improve the condition of the river, the National Mission for Clean Ganga was initiated.
● The Namami Gange Programme has been launched for the same.
NAMAMI GANGE PROGRAMME
● Ganga, as a river, has national importance but the river requires cleaning by effectively controlling the pollution for its water.
● The Union Government has launched the ‘Namami Gange Programme’ with the following objectives:
-developing sewage treatment systems in towns
❖ monitoring of industrial effluents
❖ development of river front
❖ afforestation along the bank of increase biodiversity
❖ cleaning of the river surface
❖ development of ‘Ganga Grams’ in Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal
❖ creating public awareness to avoid adding pollutants into the river even in the form of rituals.
❖ Air pollution is taken as an addition of contaminants, like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.
❖ With increasing use of varieties of fuels as the source of energy, there is a marked increase in emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in the pollution of air.
❖ the main sources of air pollution
➢ Combustion of fossil fuels
❖ These processes release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos.
❖ Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
❖ Smoky fog over cities called urban smog is caused by atmospheric pollution.
❖ It proves very harmful to human health.
❖ Air pollution can also cause acid rains.
❖ Rainwater analysis of urban environments has indicated that the pH value of the first rain after summer is always lower than the subsequent rains.
❖ Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings which is caused by noise from different sources.
❖ This matter has become a serious concern only in recent years due to a variety of technological innovations.
❖ The main sources of noise pollution are
➢ various factories
➢ mechanised construction
➢ demolition works
❖ There may be added periodical but polluting noise from sirens, loudspeakers used in various festivals, programmes associated with community activities.
❖ The level of steady noise is measured by sound level expressed in terms of decibels (dB)
❖ Of all these sources, the biggest nuisance is the noise produced by traffic, because its intensity and nature depend upon factors, such as the type of aircraft, vehicle, train and the condition of road, as well as that of vehicle (in case of automobiles).
❖ In sea traffic, the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried.
❖ Industries cause noise pollution but with varying intensity depending upon the type of industry.
❖ Noise pollution is location specific and its intensity declines with increase in distance from the source of pollution, i.e. industrial areas, arteries of transportation, airports, etc.
❖ Noise pollution is hazardous in many metropolitan and big cities in India.
URBAN WASTE DISPOSAL
❖ Urban areas are generally marked by overcrowding, congestion, inadequate facilities to support the fast growing population and consequent poor sanitary conditions and foul air. Environmental pollution by solid wastes has now got significance because of enormous growth in the quantity of wastes generated from various sources.
❖ Solid waste refers to a variety of old and used articles, for example stained small pieces of metals, broken glassware, plastic containers, polythene bags, ash, floppies, CDs, etc., dumped at different places.
❖ These discarded materials are also termed as refuse, garbage and rubbish, etc., and are disposed of from two sources :
➢ household or domestic establishments,
➢ industrial or commercial establishments.
❖ Solid wastes cause health hazards through creation of obnoxious smell, and harbouring of flies and rodents, which act as carriers of diseases like typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria and cholera, etc.
❖ These wastes cause frequent nuisance as and when these are carelessly handled, spread by wind and splintered through rainwater
❖ Urban waste disposal is a serious problem in India.
❖ In metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, etc., about 90 per cent of the solid waste is collected and disposed of.
❖ These wastes should be treated as resources and utilised for generating energy and compost.
❖ Untreated wastes ferment slowly and release toxic biogas to the atmosphere, including methane.
● Population flow from rural to urban areas is caused by many factors, like high demand for labour in urban areas, low job opportunities in rural areas and unbalanced pattern of development between urban and rural areas.
● In India, the population in cities is rapidly increasing. Due to low opportunities in smaller and medium cities, the poor people generally bypass these small cities and directly come to the megacities for their livelihood.
Problems of Slums
● Slums are residential areas of the least choice, dilapidated houses, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, lack of basic amenities, like drinking water, light and toilet facilities, etc.
● Open defecation, unregulated drainage systems and overcrowded narrow street patterns are serious health and socio environmental hazards.
● Moreover, most of the slum population works in low-paid, high risk-prone, unorganised sectors of the urban economy.
● Consequently, they are the undernourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness and can not afford to give proper education to their children.
● The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and ultimately social exclusion.
● Land degradation is generally understood either as a temporary or a permanent decline in productive capacity of the land.
● Though all degraded land may not be wasteland, an unchecked process of degradation may lead to the conversion to wasteland There are two processes that induce land degradation. These are natural and created by human beings.
● National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) has classified wastelands by using remote sensing techniques and it is possible to categorise these wastelands according to the processes that have created them.
● There are a few types of wastelands such as gullied /ravenous land, desertic or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, and glacial areas, which are primarily caused by natural agents.
● There are other types of degraded lands such as waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity and land with or without scrub, which have largely been caused by natural as well as human factors.
● There are some other types of wastelands such as degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands caused by human action.
● Wastelands caused by man-made processes are more important than natural processes.
Question. Which of the following is the main source of human created water pollution?
b. Domestic waste
d. Cultural activities
Question. Which of the following is the most water polluting industries?
a. Food processing industry
b. Pulp and Paper industry
c. Electroplating industry
d. Iron and steel industry
Question. Which of the following is not the cause of noise pollution?
a. Mechanised construction
b. Combustion of coal, petroleum and diesel
c. Automobiles and aircraft
Question. Which of the following factors is not responsible for land degradation?
a. Soil erosion
Question. Which of the following wastelands belongs to human generated activities?
a. Barren rocky areas
b. Glacial areas
c. Degraded shifting cultivation areas
d. Desertic coastal sands
Question. Which of these activities are the most significant contributor to water pollution?
Question. Which of the following is not a cause of air pollution?
a. Combustion of fossil fuels
b. Mining activities
d. Agricultural runoff
Question. Which of the following elements is both a water pollutant and air pollutant?
b. Carbon monoxide
Question. Respiratory diseases are mainly caused by ____ pollution.
Question. What & age of total geographical area of India is classified as man-made degraded CWL?
Question. Which of the following wastelands have been primarily formed by natural agents?
a. Barren rocky areas
b. Desertic sands
c. Steep sloping land
d. All of these
Question. Which of the following programmes is launched by the present Union Government for the cleaning of river Ganga?
a. Ganga Action Plan
b. Namami Ganga
c. Ganga Namami Action Plan
d. Ganga Cleaning Mission
Question. Which of these sources are responsible for water pollution?
3) farms and fields
a. 1,2 and 4
b. 1,2 3 and4
c. 1, 3 and 4
d. 1,2 and 3
Question. Which of the following is/are the causes of pollution in Yamuna?
1. Industrial pollution from Kanpur.
2 Domestic waste from Delhi.
3 Extraction of water by Haryans and Uttar Pradesh for irrigation.
a. 1,2 and 3
c. land 3
d. 1 and 2
Assertion a. and other labelled as Reason (R).In the context of two statements which one of the following is correct?
a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
c. A is true, but R ts false
d. A is false, but R is true
Question. Assertion a.- India is facing a serious problem of urban waste disposal.
Reason (R) - About 80 to 50 per cent of the wastes generated are left uncontrolled and untreated.
Question. Assertion a.- Watershed management Is an effective way to prevent land degradation.
Reason (R) -Watershed management programmes acknowledge the linkages between land, water and vegetation and improve the livelihoods of people through natural resource management and community participation.
Fill in the Blanks
Question. The largest slum of Asia is located in ____ .
Question. Sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide are sources of ____ pollution.
Question. Sewage disposal, runoff over activated lands and nuclear power plants can cause ———- pollution.
Question. Solid waste is generated from ____ and—----------- establishments.
Answer. Household, industrial
Question. Identify the problem shown in the diagram.
Answer. Accumulation of uncollected solid waste in open spaces between houses
Question. Mention two implications of this problem?
Answer. Health hazard Release of toxic biogas to the atmosphere
Question. Is our urban waste worth anything? Mention at least two uses.
Answer. Yes. It can be utilised for generating energy Compost can be prepared
Jhabua district is located in the westernmost agro-climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh. It is, in fact, one of the five most backward districts of the country. It is characterised by high concentration of tribal population (mostly Bhils). The people suffer due to poverty which has been accentuated by the high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land. The watershed management programmes funded by both the ministries of “Rural Development '' and “Agriculture”, Government of India, have been successfully implemented in Jhabua district which has gone a long way in preventing land degradation and improving soil quality. Watershed Management Programmes acknowledge the linkage between land, water and vegetation and attempts to improve livelihoods of people through natural resource management and community participation. In the past five years, the programmes funded by the Ministry of Rural Development alone (implemented by Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Watershed Management) has treated 20 percent of the total area under Jhabua district. The Petlawad block of Jhabua is located in the northernmost part of the district and represents an interesting and successful case of Government-NGO partnership and community participation in managing watershed programmes. The Bhils in Petlawad block, for example, (Sat Rundi hamlet of Karravat village) through their own efforts, have revitalised large parts of common property resources. Each household planted and maintained one tree on the common property. They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for at least two years. Even after that, they say, there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle, and they are thus confident that the pastures they have developed would sustain their cattle in future. An interesting aspect of this experience is that before the community embarked upon the process of management of the pasture, there was encroachment on this land by a villager from an adjoining village. The villagers called the tehsildar to ascertain the rights of the common land. The ensuing conflict was tackled by the villagers by offering to make the defaulter encroaching on the CPR a member of their user group and sharing the benefits of greening the common lands/ pastures.
Question. How the common property resources in Jhabua were restored and developed?
Answer. Each household planted and maintained one tree on the common property. They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for two years there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle
Question. Name the ministry which funded the development of CPR .
Answer. Ministries of “Rural Development” and “Agriculture”
Question. Write any two characteristics of the tribal people of Jhabua district
Answer. The people suffer due to poverty which has been accentuated by the high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land
Question. How have the bhils of Petlawad block of Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh revitalised large parts of common property resources through their own efforts. Explain with examples
Answer. The Bhils in Petlawad block through their own efforts, have revitalised large parts of common property resources. Each household planted and maintained one tree on the common property. They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for at least two years. Even after that, there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle, and they are thus confident that the pastures they have developed would sustain their cattle in future
Question. Examine the success of the watershed management programme implemented in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh.
Answer. The watershed Management programme in Jhabua district is highly successful because –
1. Land degradation has been prevented.
2. Soil quality has improved.
3. Improved the growth of natural vegetation.
4. Improved the sources of livelihood for the tribals.
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing degradation of the quality of water considerably. Surface water available from rivers, canals, lakee, etc. are never pure. It contains small quantities of suspended When concentration of these substances increases, the water becomes polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of water is unable to purify the water. Though water pollutants are aleo created from natural sources (erosion, landslides, decay and decomposition of plants and animals, etc.) pollutants from human activities are the real causes of concern. Human beings pollute the water through the most significant contributor. Industries produce several undesirable products water, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or lakes. Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, the bio-system of these waters. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.Various types of chemicals used in modern generating components. These chemicals are washed down to the river, lakes and tanks. These chemicals aleo infiltrate the soil to reach the groundwater.Fertiliser induces an increase in the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural activities ouch as pilgrimage, religious fairs, touriem, etc. aleo causes water pollution. In India, almost all surface water sources are contaminated and unfit for human consumption. Water pollution is a source of commonly caused due to contaminated water etc.
Question. Which of the following is the largest contributor to water pollution in India?
Question. Which among the following is a polluting industry?
a. Leather industry
b. Pulp and paper industry
c. Chemicals industry
d. All of the above
Question. Indiscriminate use of fertilisers leads to increase in which of the following harmful components in water?
Question. Water pollution can cause the following type of disease?
a. Respiratory illness
c. Lung disease
d. All of these
Based on the universal law “Polluter pays' ', an effort to restore the ecology and safeguard human health with people's participation has taken place in Daurals near Meerut. Theee efforts are now bearing fruits after a span of three years when Meerut based NGO had developed a model for ecological restoration. The meeting of the Daurala Industries officials, NGOs, Government officials and other stakeholders in Meerut , has brought out results. The powerful logics, authentic studies and the pressure of people have brought a new lease of life to the twelve thousand residents of this village. It was in the year 2003 that the pitiable condition of Deuralaites drew the attention of civil society. ’ The groundwater of this village was contaminated with heavy metals. The reason was that the untreated wastewater of Deurala industries was leaching to the groundwater table. The NGO conducted a door to door survey of the health status of the residents and came out with a report. People's representatives eat together to find out sustainable solutions to the health problem. The industrialists showed a keen ecology. The overhead water tank's capacity in the village was enhanced and a 900m extra pipeline was laid to supply potable water to the community. The silted pond of the village was cleaned and recharged by desilting it. Large quantity of silt was removed paving way to a large quantity of water so that it recharged the aquifers. Rainwater harvesting structures have been constructed at different places which has helped in diluting the contaminants of the groundwater after the monsoons. 1000 trees have also been planted.
Question. Daurala was experiencing the following type of pollution?
a. Air pollution
b. Water pollution
c. Land pollution
d. Noise pollution
Question. Which of these measures were taken by the people to dilute the harmful contaminants of groundwater?
a. Dam construction
b. Rainwater harvesting
c. Digging of borewells
d. None of the above
Question. What was the largest source of water pollution in Daurala?
d. Service sector
Question. Which of the following played the most important role in resolving the pollution related issues at Daurala?
a. The Judiciary
b. The Government
c. The Civil Servants
d. The Civil Society
Dharavi-Asia‘’s Largest Slum “.... Busse merely skirt the periphery. Auto Rickshaws cannot go there, Dharavi is part of central Bombay where three wheelers are banned. Only one main road traverses the slum, the miscalled ‘ninety-foot road’, which has been reduced to less than half of that for most of its Length. Some of the side alleys and lanes are so narrow that not even a bicycle can pass. The whole neighbourhood consists of temporary buildings, two or three storeyed high with rusty iron stairways to the upper part, where a single room is rented by a whole family, sometimes accommodating twelve or more people; it is a kind of tropical version of the industrial dwelling of Victorian London's East End. But Dharavi is a keeper of more sombre secrets (than the revulsion it inspires in the rich; a revulsion, moreover, that is, in direct proportion to the role it serves in the creation of the wealth of Bombay. In this place of shadowless, treeless sunlight, uncollected garbage, stagnant pools of foul water, where the only non-human creatures |are the shining black crows and long grey rats,some of the most beautiful, valuable and useful articles in India are made. From Dharavi come delicate ceramics and pottery, exquisite leather goods, high-fashion garments, finely-wrought metalwork, delicate jewellery settings, wood carvings and furniture that would find its way into the richest houses, both in India and abroad... Dharavi was an arm of the sea that was filled by waste, largely produced by the people who have come to live there: Scheduled Castes and poor Muslims. It comprises rambling buildings of corrugated metal, 20 metres high in places, used for the treatment of hides and tanning. There are pleasant parts, but rotting garbage is everywhere...”
Question. Which of the following products are manufactured in Dharavi?
a. Auto parts
b. Electronic items
c. Consumer electrical
d. Leather goods
Question. Which among the following are the common problems of Slums?
a. Unhygienic conditions
c. Lack of sanitation
d. All of the above
Question. The slum population mainly comprises which of the following types of occupations?
a. Organised sector workers
b. Service sector workers
c. First generation migrants
Question. Which among the following are social issues prevailing in the slums?
c. Social discrimination
d. All of the above
Question. What is the criterion for the classification of pollution?
Answer. Pollution is classified on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused
Question. Which is the main source of environmental pollution in India?
Answer. Human activities
Question. Mention any two cultural activities responsible for water pollution in India
Answer. Pilgrimage, religious fairs, tourism
Question. Which city is the largest polluter of the Yamuna
Question. Which city of India pollutes the Ganga through its leather factories?
Question. Describe any three sources which are responsible for water pollution in India.
Answer. Industrial, agricultural and cultural activities
Question. Name four diseases spread due to water pollution
Answer. Diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, cholera
Question. Name any two natural sources of water pollution
Answer. Water pollutants are also created from natural sources -erosion, landslides, decay and decomposition of plants and animals, etc
Question. Which is the most significant contributor of water pollution in India
Question. “The industries are major air polluters in India.” Evaluate the statement.
Answer. There is a marked increase in emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere due to various industrial processes resulting in the pollution of air.
These processes release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos
Question. Which source of pollution is responsible for acid rain
Answer. Air pollution
Question. Name any two diseases that are caused by air pollution
Answer. Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
Question. How does noise pollution affect human health ?
Answer. Noise pollution and human health: It causes damage to the hearing power of human beings. It creates irritation
Question. “If we treat the urban waste as a resource and utilise it properly it will be highly valuable to people in India.” Support the statement.
Answer. These wastes should be treated as resources and utilised for generating energy and compost. Eg- bio energy plant at okhla in delhi which uses municipal waste
Question. Suggest any three measures to control water pollution in India
● Developing sewage treatment systems in towns,
● Monitoring of industrial effluents
● Cleaning of the river surface
● Public awareness for control of pollution
Question. Suggest any three measures to reduce noise pollution in India.
a. Regular maintenance of vehicles and machines
b. Protection of ears with hearing protection devices
c. Reduce the volume of devices used
d. Planting trees
e. Banning the use of loudspeakers in festivals and other community programmes
Question. Land degradation is caused by human made processes that are more harmful than natural processes in India. Analyse the statement with suitable examples.
● There are two processes that induce land degradation.
● These are natural and created by human beings.
● Wastelands such as gullied /ravenous land, desertic or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, and glacial areas are primarily caused by natural agents .
Wastelands such as degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands are caused by human action
Wastelands caused by man-made processes are more important than natural processes
Question. Explain any three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India.
Answer. Three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India are as follows:
(i) Solid wastes are a threat to human health and can cause various diseases. It creates foul smell and it harbours flies and rodents that causes malaria, cholera and other diseases.
(ii) Solid waste can create inconvenience rapidly if they are not properly handled. Pollutants can spread through rainwater or wind and can cause further problems.
(iii) Industrial solid waste can cause water pollution if it is dumped into water bodies.
Question. Explain any five objectives of ‘Namami Gange Programme’.
Answer.The Objective of Namami Gange Programme are as follows—
● Developing sewage treatment systems in towns.
● Monitoring of industrial effluents.
● Development of river front.
● Afforestation along the bank to increase biodiversity.
● Cleaning of the river surface.
● Development of Ganga Gram in Uttrakhand, U.P, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
● Creating public awareness
Question. How has noise pollution become a serious problem in recent years in India ? Explain.
● Noise has become a serious concern only in recent years due to a variety of technological innovations.
● The biggest nuisance is the noise produced by traffic, because its intensity and nature depend upon factors, such as the type of aircraft, vehicle, train and the condition of road, as well as that of vehicle (in case of automobiles).
● In sea traffic, the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried. Industries cause noise pollution but with varying intensity depending upon the type of industry.
● Ocean noise is due to the vast increase in global shipping trade, the number of ships plying the oceans and higher speed of vessels.
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