Assignment for Class 12 Geography Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
Class 12 Geography students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Geography will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Fundamentals Of Human Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Assignment
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. Secondary activities involve manufacturing processes and construction (infrastructure) industries. Conversion of iron ore into steel, making yarn out of cotton, etc. The secondary sector depends on the primary sector for the raw materials necessary for production. People engaged in secondary activities are called blue-collar workers.
Characteristics of modern large-scale manufacturing
The following are the characteristics of modern large-scale manufacturing –
1. Specialisation of skills/Methods of production – It involves the production of large quantities of standardised parts by each worker performing only one task repeatedly, making the worker specialised in that skill.
2. Mechanisation – The industries use machines for the production processes. Automation is the advanced stage of mechanisation wherein, human thinking during the manufacturing process is not required.
3. Technological Innovations – Modern technology and constant innovations are done through research and development strategy for quality control, eliminating waste and inefficiency and combating pollution.
4. Organisational Structure and Stratification – Modern manufacturing is characterised by complex machine technology, vast capital, extreme specialisation, and division of labour. Large organisations and executive bureaucracy.
5. Uneven Geographic Distribution – The manufacturing industries are concentrated in regions rich in minerals and other resources. Modern manufacturing industries cover less than 10% of the world’s land area and these nations have become the centres of economic and political power. Industrial Locations Industries should be located at places where the production costs are minimum in order to maximise profits.
The following factors influence industrial locations:
1. Access to market- “Market” means people who have a demand for the manufactured goods and also have the ability to purchase (purchasing power) from the sellers at a place.
2. Access to raw materials – Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing materials (ores) are located close to the source of raw materials like sugar, steel and cement industries.
3. Access to labour supply – Labour supply is also an important factor in the location of industries. However, increased mechanisation, automation and flexibility of industrial processes have decreased the dependence of industries on labour.
4. Access to sources of energy – Industries requiring more power are situated close to the source of energy supply like the aluminium industry.
5. Access to transportation and communication facilities – Efficient transportation and communication are essential for the development of industries.
6. Government policies – Government adopts regional policies to promote balanced economic development and hence set up industries in particular areas.
7. Access to Agglomeration Economies/link between industries – It refers to the benefits derived from the linkages that exist between different industries Classification of Manufacturing
Industries Industries are classified on the basis of:
2. Raw materials/Inputs
1. Classification on the basis of size –
a) Household or Cottage Industries –
- The smallest manufacturing unit.
- Simple tools and local raw materials are used by the artisans.
- Products are made at home with the help of family members or part-time labourers.
b) Small Scale Industries –
- These are characterised by simple power-driven machines, local raw material and semi-skilled labour.
- It provides employment and increases local purchasing power.
c) Large Scale Industries –
- It involves mass production, multiple raw materials, huge energy, specialised workers, advanced technology, mass production and large capital.
- Large-scale industrial regions are broadly classified into two types-
- Traditional large-scale industrial regions which are thickly clustered in a few, more developed countries.
- High technology large-scale industrial regions which are diffused to less developed countries.
2. Classification on the basis of raw materials/inputs –
a) Agro-based Industries –
- The industries procure raw materials from the fields and farms which are processed into finished products like fruit juices, oil, beverages, sugar, rubber, textiles, etc.
b) Mineral-based Industries –
- Here minerals are used as raw materials.
- Ferrous metallic minerals (for iron and steel industries), non-ferrous metallic minerals (for aluminium, copper and jewellery industries), and non-metallic minerals (for cement and pottery industries) are used.
c) Forest-based Industries – Forests provide timber for the furniture industry, wood, bamboo and grass for the paper industry and Lac for the lac industry.
d) Animal-based Industries – Industries that depend on animal products include leather, woollen textile and ivory (made from the tusks of elephants) industries.
3. Classification on the basis of output/product-
a) Basic Industries – The industries that produce raw materials to be used in other industries are called basic industries. For example, iron and steel forms the base for other industries, and therefore, it is called the basic industry.
b) Non-Basic industries/Consumer Goods Industries –
These industries produce goods which are directly consumed by the consumer e.g., industries manufacturing soaps and detergents, bread and biscuits.
4. Classification on the basis of ownership-
a) Public Sector Industries – These are owned and managed by the governments. In India, these industries are called Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). Mixed economies have both Public and Private Sector Enterprises. Socialist economies have mostly state-owned industries.
b) Private Sector Industries – These are owned and managed by private organisations. In Capitalist economies, industries are generally owned by private investors.
c) Joint Sector Industries – These are managed by Joint Stock Companies or established and managed by private and public sectors together.
RUHR COAL FIELD –
One of the major industrial area
2. Coal, iron, steel are bases for the economy
3. Demand for coal declined so industry shrinking
4. Ruhr region is producing 80% of steel production
5. Problems of industrial waste and pollution
6. New industries emerged in the place of old industries such as car assembly new chemical industry, universities.
CONCEPT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
Latest generation manufacturing unit
2. Application of R&D unit
3. Professional workers(white collar) share large group
4. Highly skilled specialists (blue collar) also working
5. Robotics are used in assembly line 6. Computer Aided Design is used
7. Electronic controls
8. Neatly spaced, low modern dispersed office plant and lab buildings
9. Planned business parks for high-tech industries
10. Regionally concentrated, self sustained highly specialized techno-poles
11. Silicon valley in San Francisco and silicon forest near Seattle are techno poles.
Question. Jindal steel is under this sector of economy.
Question. Which of the following sub-sectors of cotton textile industry did Mahatma Gandhi support by encouraging the use of Khadi?
d) None of these
Question. Why traditional heavy industries also called smokestack industries?
a. Because they produce smoke stacks.
b. Because they are easily recognizable from a distance as the presence of stacks surround the main factory.
c. Because of the presence of flue-gas stacks continuously release smoke and cause high pollution
d. Because these industries continuously release chemicals through sewage pipes
Question. Which of the following is not a reason why certain industries tend to be located closer to the urban areas?
a. Efficient transport
b. Skilled labour
c. Open land area
Question. Jute industry in West Bengal grown up based on……….
a. Availability of labour
b. Government policies
c. Availability of raw jute
d. Transport network
Question. Match the following
Industries based on raw material Product
a. Agro based i. wool
b. forest based ii. cement
c. animal based iii. plastic
d. mineral based iv. rubber
e. chemical based v. lac
a. a.-iv,b.-i., c.-iii.,d.-ii,e.-v
Question. Assertion(A): the iron and steel industry has shifted from the coal fields towards iron ore fields.
Reason(R): now a days, only 1/6th quantity of the coal is required than earlier, for the processing of same amount of iron ore. a. Both A and R are true and R explains A b. Both A and R are true, but R does not explain A c. A is true, but R is false d. A is false, but R is true.
Question. Assertion(A): maximum concentration of jute mills in India is located between Naihati and Kolkata.
Reason(R): jute industry in India, is traditionally export oriented. a. Both A and R are true and R explains A b. Both A and R are true, but R does not explain A c. A is true, but R is false d. A is false, but R is true.
Question. Complete the following
Answer. a. ownership, b. agro based, c.mineral based, d.chemical based, e.forest based f. animal based
Identify the type of industry?
Mention the characteristics of industry?
Differentiate agri business and agro processing?
Answer. a. agro based industry b. it involves the processing of raw materials from the field and the farm into finished products for rural and urban markets. c. Agri business is commercial farming on an industrial scale often financed by business whose main interest lie outside agriculture. Agro processing includes canning, producing cream, fruit processing and confectionery
Question. What is automation ?
Answer. Where machines, use gadgets to do work, it is called automation. It is without human thinking. It is an advanced stage of mechanisation. These have computer control systems
Question. Secondary activities add value to natural resources.’ Explain with two examples.
Answer. Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into more usable products. Most of the materials from the farm, forest, mine and the sea are transformed into valuable products. Secondary activities, therefore are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries
Question. What are the characteristics of traditional large scale Industrial regions ?
Answer. Traditional Large-Scale Industrial Regions
These are based on heavy industry, often located near coalfields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries
Question. Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centers?
Answer. High technology, or simply high tech, is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. Professional workers make up for a large number of the total workforce. These professional skilled workers are located in urban areas, and due to high rent in the central areas of the cities, they situate themselves in the periphery.
The industry is also situated in the periphery because of the low rent, and also because of the closeness to the urban centres which provide them with availability of the workers. Neatly spaced, low, modem, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. This requires large areas for massive set up which due to increased population in major metropolitan cities is not available. Hence, these industries are set up near the urban centers where adequate space is available. Also their situation near urban places helps them to gain access to the-urban market, and also to tap the skilled workforce that is available therein due to availability of educational institutes.
Example in case would be Gurgaon in Haryana, which has grown into one of the greatest high tech hub near Delhi.
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