CBSE Class 12 English Note making Assignment

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Assignment for Class 12 English Note Making

Class 12 English students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Note Making in Class 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Class 12 English will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Note Making Class 12 English Assignment


Characteristics of Notes

- Short
- Include the important information in brief
- Logically presented in sequence
- Organised appropriately under Heading and Sub Heading.

Mechanics of Note-Making

(a) Use of Abbreviations :

(i) Capitalized first letter of words : UNO, CBSE, NCERT, etc.)
(ii) arithmatic symbols : (><, ,­¯, \ kg., % etc.)
(iii) Commonly used : (in newspapers, magazines etc.) (sc., govt., Eng., Sans.)
(iv) Invented : First and last few letters of the words with a dot at the end (edul, poln., popn. mfg.).

(b) Proper Indentation

Heading (Title)

1. Sub Heading .................

a. — (Point)
b.  — (Point)
c.  —(Point)
c.i.  — (Sub-point)
c.ii.  — (Sub-point)

2. Sub-Heading

(c) Make use of words and phrases only. Avoid full length sentences.

(d) Give appropriate Title. The title may be given at the starting of notes or before summary which is of 3 marks and should not be more than 1/3 of the passage's length.

Marking Scheme / Pattern for Note Making and Summarising
1. Notes — Heading / Title 

2. Abbreviation / Contraction 
(Minimum four)

3. Sub-Headings (Two-three as per the requirement) alongwith 2-3 points. 

4. Summary — Content – 02
Expression – 01
(Standard word limit for Sumary is 80 words or around 1/3 of the passage)

Note : In case a student uses his/her invented contraction, he/she is required to provide key for the same as —
prblm. = problem
trp’nt. = transparent
rqd. = required
dprsd. = depressed
* Notes / Points of students may vary from one another but one should ensure that the main ideas/views are covered.

1. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

Effective speaking depends on effective listening. It takes energy to concentrate on hearing and to concentrate on understanding what has been heard.
Incompetent listeners fail in a number of ways. First, they may drift. Their attention drifts from what the speaker is saying. Second, they may counter. They find counter arguments to whatever a speaker may be saying. Third, they compete. Then, they filter. They exclude from their understanding those parts of the message which do not readily fit with their own frame of reference. Finally they react. They let personal feelings about speaker or subject override the significance of the message which is being sent.
What can a listener do to be more effective?
The first key of effective listening is the art of concentration. If a listener positively wishes to concentrate on receiving a message his chances of success are high. It may need determination. Some speakers are difficult to follow, either because of voice problems, or because of the form in which they send a message. There is then a particular need for the determination of a listener to concentrate on what is being said.
Concentration is helped by alertness. Mental alertness is helped by physical alertness. It is not simply physical fitness, but also positioning of the body, the limbs and the head. Some people also find it helpful to their concentration if they hold the head slightly to one side. One useful way for achieving this is intensive note-taking, by trying to capture the critical headings and subheadings the speaker is referring to.
Note-taking has been recommended as an aid to the listener. It also helps the speaker. It gives him confidence when he sees that listeners are sufficiently interested to take notes; the patterns of eye contact when the note-taker looks up can be very positive; and the speaker’s timing is aided—he can see when a note-taker is writing hard and can then make effective use of pauses.
Posture too is important. Consider the impact made by a less competent listener who pushes his chair backwards and slouches. An upright posture helps a listener’s concentration. At the same time it is seen by the speakers to be a positive feature amongst his listeners. Effective listening skills have an impact on both the listener and the speaker.

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. 

1. Eff. spk. rely on
1.1 Effective listening
1.2 Energy to conc. on hearing
1.3 Conc. on understanding what has been heard

2. Causes of failure for incomp. listening
2.1 drift in attention
2.2 face argument
2.3 complete
2.4 reaction/react

3. Factors affecting listening
3.1 Art of conc.
(a) Alertness
(b) Positioning of body
(c) Note taking
3.2 Determination
3.3 Voice problem

4. Imp. of note taking
4.1 Helps the speaker
4.2 Gives Confi.
4.3 Develops (+)ve eye contact

5. Imp. of Posture
5.1 Dev. int.
5.2 Increase level of conc.
5.3 Dev. (+)ve feature

Abbreviations and symbols used :
1. Confi. – Confidence
2. (+) ve – positive
3. Imp. – Importance
4. int. – interest
5. Dev. – Develop
6. Eff. – Effective
7. Spk. – Speaking
8. conc. – concentrate
9. incomp. – incomplete

Question. Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 
Answer.Summary - Effective speaking and effective listening goes hand in hand. It is an art which depends upon a lot of factors like concentration, determination and clarity of voice. Incompetent listeners fail due to lack of attention, counter arguments, competition, etc. Alertness is a mental state of mind, which plays a pivotal role in this. Note taking, which includes eye contact is another important factor. The way a person maintains his/her posture is equally important to leave an important impact on both the speaker and listener.


2. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

A vast blanket of pollution stretching across South Asia is cutting down sunlight by 10 per cent over India, damaging agriculture, modifying rainfall patterns and putting hundreds of thousands of people at risk, according to a new study.The startling findings of scientists working with the United Nations Environment Programme indicate that the spectacular economic growth seen in this part of the world in the past decade may soon falter as a result of this pollution. Research carried out in India indicates that the haze caused by pollution might be reducing winter rice harvests by as much as 10 per cent, the report said.

“Acids in the haze may, by falling as acid rain, have the potential to damage crops and trees. Ash falling on leaves can aggravate the impacts of reduced sunlight on earth’s surface. The pollution that is forming the haze could be leading to several hundreds of thousands of premature deaths as a result of higher levels of respiratory diseases,” it said. Results from seven cities in India alone, including Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, estimate that air pollution was annually responsible for 24,000 premature deaths in the early 1990s. By the mid 1990s they resulted in an estimated 37,000 premature fatalities.
“The haze has cut down sunlight over India by 10 per cent (so far) - a huge amount! As a repercussion, the North West of India is drying up.” Prof. V. Ramanathan said when asked specifically about the impact of the haze over India. Stating that sunlight was going down every year, he said. “We are still in an early stage of understanding of the impact of the haze.
Asked whether the current drought in most parts of India after over a decade of good monsoon was owing to the haze, he said, “it was too early to reach a conclusion. If the drought persists for about four to five years, then we should start suspecting that it may be because of the haze.”
India, China and Indonesia are the worst affected owing to their population density, economic growth and depleting forest cover. The preliminary results indicate, that the build up of haze, a mass of ash, acids, aerosols and other particles is disrupting weather systems, including rainfall and wind patterns and triggering droughts in western parts of the Asian Continent. The concern is that the regional and global impacts of the haze are set to intensify over the next 30 years as the population of the Asian region rises to an estimated five billion people.

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. 
1. Vast pollution blanket across South Asia
1.1 Drastic chngs. in weather
1.2 Puts ppl. at risk
1.3 Economic grwth. may falter

2. Threats of acid rain and resprtry. diseases
2.1 Potential dmge. to crops.
(a) Falling ash
• reduced sunlight
• aggrvtd. impact on crops and plants
2.2 Premature death due to resprtry diseases

3. Pollution haze over India
3.1 Reduction in sunlight by 10%
3.2 Drying North West of India

4. Impacts of polltn. haze to intensity
4.1 Rising popltn. of the Asian Region
(a) Worst affected countries
• India
• China
• Indonesia
4.2 Economic grwth. but deplting. forest covr.
(a) Preliminary Results
• Haze build up
• Mass of ash, acid, aerosols, etc.
• Disruption in weathr. sys., rainfall and wind patterns

Abbreviations used :
1. chngs. – changes
2. ppl. – people
3. grwth. – growth
4. resprtry. – respiratory
5. polltn. – pollution
6. popltn. – population
7. deplting. – depleting
8. covr. – cover
9. dmge. – damage
10. aggrvtd. – aggravated
11. weathr. – weather
12. sys. – system

Question. Write a summary of the passage in 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 
Answer.Summary - Vast pollution blankets across South Asia. This has brought drastic change in the weather, putting people at risk. As a result, economic growth may falter because of drought in India. Acid rain and premature death due to respiratory disease are threatening plants and humans alike. With India, China and Indonesia being the worst affected countries, the rising population, economic growth and depleting forests in the Asian regions are causing impacts of the pollution haze to intensify and disrupt weather systems.
Title : The Changing Weather System


3. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives.
Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home - as a companion to her own son - a little boy who happened to have a hunchback. She had warned her son to be careful not to refer to his disability, and to go right on playing with him as if he were like any other boy.
The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion: “Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued: “It is the box in which your wings are and some day God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel.”
Often it takes a third eye, or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me.

The impact of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock-bottom or lonely, or even deserted. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of pain and distress. The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hate and hardheartedness prevail, they get channelled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is often the plus factor that helps build character. It helps us to accept and to overcome suffering. It creates lasting bonds and its reach is infinite.
It is true that there is no shortage of destructive elements - forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process, destroy themselves - but at the same time there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look only at gloom and doom - let’s seek out positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered.

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
1. Life’s tests are its plus factors.
1.1 Plus factors, such as ovrcmng. suffrng. moulds chrctr.
1.2 Simple hearted see plus factors more readily
1.3 Often a change in focus is req.

2. Nether Springs
2.1 Flow into lonely depressed ppl’s. lives
2.2 Brings peace and patience
2.3 Leads to recovery

3. Life forces v/s death forces
3.1 Forces of destrcn. malice, hate and hardheartedness.
(a) Chanld. through
• Malice
• Hate
• Hard-heartedness
(b) Forces of death and destrcn.
• Less physical
• More psychic of psychological
• Self-destructive by seeking other’s destrcn.
3.2 Forces of life regenerate hope of joy
(a) Prevails where
• Openness
• Peace of good heartedness

4. Love v/s fear
4.1 Love overcomes fear, life force triumphs
4.2 Love builds, fear destroys
4.3 Love builds character
(a) Helps in
• Accepting and overcoming sufferings
• Creating lasting bond
• Infinite reach

5. Conclusiona
5.1 Seek positivity and happiness
5.2 Find what is awaiting discovery

Abbreviations used:
1. ovrcmng. – overcoming
2. ppl. – people
3. suffrng. – suffering
4. destrcn. – destruction
5. chrctr. – character
6. req. – required
7. v/s – versus
8. Chanld. – Channelled

Question. Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Summary - Life’s tests are its plus factors. Overcoming sufferings is a plus factor, which moulds character. Simple hearted see plus factors readily. However, a change in focus is also required. Nether springs flow into lonely and depressed people’s life, bringing peace and patience and eventually, recovery. Hate, malice, etc. are channelled as forces of destruction. Forces of life generates hope of joy. Life force triumphs when love overcomes fear. Love creates as lasting bond therefore, one should seek positivity and happiness.
Title : Seeking Happiness

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : 

The most alarming of man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or corn, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to ramain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.
It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a stage of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contained elements that were hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there were short wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modern world there is no time.
The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature. 

Question. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply a title to it.
1. Title : The Ailing Environment

1. Contamination of Environment
1.1 Lethal mat. in air, earth, rivers & sea
1.2 Initiates evil chain of pollution
1.3 Chems. and rad. create havoc
1.4 Reaches bones of humans 

2. Hundreds of millions of years
2.1 Life reached stg. of adjust.
2.2 balance with surround.
2.3 no time for modern world 

3. Radiation
3.1 no longer the bombt. of cosmic rays
3.2 unnatural creation of man
3.2.1 tampering with atom
3.3 natural chems. replaced by synthc. chems.
3.3.1 made in labs.
3.3.2 no counterparts in nature. 

Abbreviations used :
1. mat. - material
2. Chems. - Chemicals
3. rad. - radiation
4. & - and
5. stg. - stage
6. adjust. - adjustment
7. surround. - surroundings
8. bombt. - bombardment
9. synthc. - synthetic
10. labs. - laboratories 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 
Answer. Summary - Lethal materials in air, earth, rivers and sea contaminates the environment, initiating an irreversible evil chain of pollution. Chemicals and radiation create havoc in contaminating the environment. They reach human bones through different mediums.
Life reached the stage of adjustment and balance with the surroundings in hundreds of millions of years. Unfortunately, the modern world does not have much time.
Bombardment of cosmic rays no longer causes radiation, it is the unnatural creation of man. 


2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :  

People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. They can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years in the belief that they may one day need them. Old people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with the relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a sentimental value.
Some things are collected deliberately in an attempt to avoid wastage. Among these are string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened. Collecting small items can be a mania. A lady cuts out from newspaper sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy if she had money. As she is not rich, the chances are that she will never be able to afford such purchases. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk. Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one’s treasure is always a joy. One doesn’t have to go out for amusement as the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of - stamps, records, first editions of books, China - there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it.
There are other benefits also. One gets to meet like-minded collectors to get advice, compare notes, exchange articles, to show off one’s latest find, etc. So, one’s circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travelling, perhaps a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to one country. Over the years one may well become an authority on one’s hobby and will probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences. 

Question. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary - (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 
Answer.  Title-Collecting - A Hobby 

1. Reasons why old people accu. belongings
1.1 Lack of phy. & mental energy
1.2 Sentiments 

2. Collctng. things
2.1 Avoid wastage
2.2 Mania 

3. Collctng. as a serious hobby
3.1 Relxn. for leisure hours.
3.2 Amusnt.
3.3 Source of edu. 

4. Other benefits of collctng.
4.1 Growth of frnd. circle
4.2 Travelling
4.3 Meeting in another town
4.4 Able to address audience 

Abbreviations used :
1. accu. – accumulating
2. phy. – physical
3. Collctng. – Collecting
4. Relxn. – Relaxation
5. Amusnt. – Amusement
6. edu. – education
7. frnd. – friend 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 
Answer. Summary- People unknowingly collect different kind of things. They leave unwanted objects in drawers and cupboards for years believing that they may use them in the future. The two reasons why old people accumulate belongings are due to the lack of physical and mental energy and sentiment. Collecting small items can be to avoid wastage or it can be a mania. There are many advantages for those who have collecting as a serious hobby. It gives relaxation for leisure hours, amusement and it is a source of education. The other benefits of collecting are: there would be a growth of friend circle, it leads to travelling, meetings in another towns and even one can become an authority on one’s hobby and will be able to address gatherings and audiences. 


3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :  

It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realised there is a big difference between the two words.
Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening. Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening.
Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.
We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no. Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once, we have done that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind, but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.
Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub headings. Use recognisable abbreviations (wherever necessary - minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer.Title-Listening Verses Hearing 

1. Listening vs. Hearing
1.1 Difference between the two synonyms
1.2 Hearing but not listening
1.3 Paying attention
1.4 Hearing as a physical phenomenon
1.5 Consciously using your mind
1.6 Mind full of needless chatter
1.7 Accommodating what is said 

2. Judgement about the speaker
2.1 Prejudiced and preconceived notions
2.2 Dying to pro. right or wrong
2.3 Neg. mindset
2.4 Proving our ver. of things right 

3. Ideal way of listening
3.1 Listen first
3.2 Listen with awareness
3.3 Think before you judge
3.4 Words unspoken leave a feeling of tension and negativity
3.5 Speak your mind out 

4. Listening to understand people
4.1 Imbibe what is not spoken
4.2 Times when we don’t listen to people who matter
4.3 Triggers mis. 

Abbreviations used :
1. vs. – verses
2. Neg. – negative
3. ver. – version
4. don’t – do not
5. pro. – pronounce
6. mis. – misunderstanding 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words
Summary- Sometimes, we hear people but do not listen to them attentively. The difference between the two synonyms is that one is a physical phenomenon while the other is a conscious use of mind. We, as listeners, often have preconceived notions about the speaker. We come prepared with a negative mindset, tend to prove them wrong and pounce with our own version of things. Ideally, we should listen to them, understand their perception and stop judging them in order to avoid misunderstandings. 


4. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

Although stupidity is commonly defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she is not very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.
First is the simple, relatively harmless level.
Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still in the roof. We call this absent-minded. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by the stupid behaviour.
The next type-serious stupidity-is more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advise given to other is also serious stupidity. An example is the person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention maybe to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help an amateur will only worsen the situation.
Even worse is the third of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-weekold kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections exposure or the wheels of passing vehicle. Yet they are able to tell themselves that they will find ‘nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is – ‘But I did not think.....’ This, however, is not an inadequate excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
1. Meaning of stupidity

1.1 lacking intell.
1.2 no good judgement
1.3 senseless 

2. Level of stupidity
2.1 amusing behaviour
2.2 serious stupidity
– pract. jokes
– irresp. advice
– even worse 

3. Absent – minded
3.1 inconve.
3.2 embarrassment 

4. Unintentional stupidity
4.1 throw away anyth.
4.2 hurt or kill poor things 

Abbreviations used :
1. intell. – intelligence
2. pract. – practical
3. irresp. – irresponsible
4. inconve. – inconvenience
5. anyth. – anything 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 
Answer.Title : Types of Stupidity
Summary- The word stupidity comes from Latin word which means ‘senseless.’ It is commonly defined as a lack of normal intelligence. A person who does not use good judgement or sense is termed as stupid. First level of stupidity is harmless and it is defined by absent-mindedness. Second level of stupidity is about practical jokes which are more dangerous for example, putting salt in sugar container, etc. Third level of stupidity is when somebody unintentionally throws away poor things or animals. Another type of stupidity is when a successful businessman has many office affairs. It is because he thinks he can get away with his actions without taking any responsibility.


5. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

(1) I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments. 

(2) Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me. 

(3) Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home - that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure, I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost. 

(4) Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one. 

(5) One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings.Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. 

1. Recalling childhood moments
1.1. Happy & carefree
1.2. Terrified of darkness & getting lost
2. Childhood fears 

2.1. Feeling helpless in the dark
2.1.1. Strange shadows - an unknown beast
2.1.2. Moving curtains
2.1.3. Creaking sounds
2.1.4. Imagining burglars & monsters
2.1.5. Lying still with pounding heart 

2.2. Fear of getting lost (on the way back home)
2.2.1. Scanning school buses - familiar faces, same driver
2.2.2. Re-confirming in the bus
2.2.3. Not letting leaders out of sight
2.2.4. Avoiding adventurous acts.
2.2.5. Going with surety of not being lost 

2.3. Fear of not being liked
2.3.1. Quite shy
2.3.2. Worried about looks - fat, wore braces, clothes
2.3.3. Wearing right clothes
2.3.4. Flat vs. saddled shoes for school
2.3.5. Imp. of popularity 

3. Coping with childhood fears as an adult
3.1. Undg. evolution process - child to adult
3.2. Recognising & overcoming fears
3.3. Accepting help from others
3.4. Role of friendliness & sincerity
3.5. Undg. things that scared 

Abbreviations used :
1. & – and
2. acts. – activities
3. vs. – versus
4. Imp. – Importance
5. Undg. – Understanding 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Answer.Title : Recalling Childhood Fears as an Adult
Summary- My childhood was generally happy and had carefree moments. However, darkness scared me with its shadows, unexpected movement of curtains and creaking sounds. It made me feel helpless and I used to lie still, with a pounding heart. I was scared of getting lost. Before boarding my school bus, I scanned it for familiar faces. I was shy and afraid of not being liked by others. As I grew from a child to an adult, I realised that understanding things that scared us as a child helped in coping with life. 


6. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :  

The outcasts were not allowed to mount the platform surrounding the well, because if they were ever to draw water from it, the Hindus of the three upper castes would consider the water polluted. Nor were they allowed access to the nearby brook as their use of it would contaminate the stream. They had no well of their own because it cost a lot of money to dig a well in a hilly town. Perforce they had to collect at the foot of the uppercaste Hindu well and depend on the bounty of some of their superiors to pour water into their pitchers. More often than not there was no upper-caste Hindu present. Most of them were rich enough to get the water-carriers to supply them with plenty of fresh water every morning for their baths and kitchens, and only those came to the well who were either fond of an open-air bath or too poor to pay for the water-carriers’ services. So the outcasts had to wait for a chance to bring some uppercaste Hindu to the well, for luck to decide that he was kind, for Fate to ordain that he had time — to get their pitchers filled with water. They crowded round the well, congested the space below its high brick platform, morning, noon and night, joining their hands in servile humility to every passer-by; cursing their fate, and bemoaning their lot, if they were refused the help they wanted; praying, beseeching and blessing, if some generous soul condescended to listen to them, or to help them.
When Sohini reached the well there were already about ten other outcasts waiting. But there was no one to given them water. She had come as fast as she could to the well, full of fear and anxiety that she would have to wait her turn since she could see from a distance that there was already a crowd. She didn’t feel disappointed so much as depressed to realise that she would be the eleventh to receive water. She had sensed the feeling in her brother’s soul. He was tired. He was thirsty. She had felt like a mother as she issued from her home to fetch water, a mother going out to fetch food and drink for her loved ones at home. Now as she sat in a row with her fellow sufferers, her heart sank. There was no sign of anyone passing that way who could be a possible benefactor. But she was patient. She had in her an inbred fortitude, obvious in her curious reserve, in her docile and peaceful bearing. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
1. Outcasts faced caste prejudices
1.1 weren’t allowed to draw water from well or brook
1.2 upper caste Hindus believed they woul pollute water 

2. Poverty aggrated. their water woes
2.1 no separate well for them
2.2 too poor to afford their own well
2.3 depnd. on bounty of Hindus
2.4 had to wait long 

3. Easy access to water for the rich
3.1 rich enged. water carriers
3.2 others drew water directly from well 

4. Sohini’s plight
4.1 long que. at well
4.2 her brother thirsty and tired
4.3 upper caste Hindus not sighted
4.4 rsgd. herself to fate 

Abbreviations used :
1. weren’t – were not
2. aggrated. – aggravated
3. depnd. – depended
4. enged. – engaged
5. que. – queue
6. rsgd. – resigned 

Question. Make a summary of the above passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Title – The Plight of Outcasts
Summary- The outcasts totally depended on the mercy of the upper caste Hindus to get water. They were not allowed to use the well or brook. They didn’t even have a separate well. The outcasts had to wait for a gentle person to get water, whereas upper caste people would get it directly. When Sohini came to the well to get water, there was already a queue. Her brother was thirsty and tired and she was determined to get water so resigned herself to wait, trusting her fate. 


7. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :  

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods, the importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.
The food stuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears, etc.
These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.
In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease post-prandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.
Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time or release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it. The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.
The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the highfibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.
The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. 

This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.
(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’) 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.
Answer.Title-Significance of Dietary Fibres 

1. Importance

1.1 Essential ingredient of bal. diet
(i) Suggested intake-40 gms./day
1.2 Contains gums & pectin
(i)↓ P.P. Blood sugar levels
1.3 Diet rich in fibres
(i) ↓ incidence of CHD
(ii) Controls irritable bowel syndrome
(iii) ↓ Dental caries 

2. Source
2.1 Cereals & grains
2.2 Fruits
(i) Citrus fruits
(ii) Fruits with seeds
2.3 Green leafy vegetables 

3. Physiological outcome
3.1 Not digested by enzymes in body
3.2 Hold water
(i) gets swollen → relives constipation
3.3. Increases transit time in gut
(i) ↓ risk of colon cancer
(ii) checks obesity 

4. Adverse effects
4.1 Binds trace elements
(i) hampers absorption- nutritional deficiency 

Abbreviations and symbols used :
1. bal. – balance
2. gms. – grams
3. & – and
4. P.P. – Post Prandial
5. CHD – Coronary Heart Disease
6. ↓ – lowers
7. → – lead to 

Question. Write a summary of the above in about 80 words.
Answer.Summar - y Dietary fibres are indigestible carbohydrates, essential ingredients of balanced diet with a suggested intake of 40 grams per day. Fibres are rich in gums and pectin that lower Post Prandial blood sugar levels. Diet rich in fibres lowers incidence of Coronary Heart Diseases, controls irritable bowel syndrome and dental caries. The main source of it are cereals and grains, fruits both citrus and with seeds and green leafy vegetables. It is not digested by the enzymes in the body, holds water and increases transit time in the gut there by relieving constipation, checking obesity and lowering the risk of colon cancer. It binds trace elements that hamper their absorption leading to nutritional deficiency which seems to be the only adverse effect. 


8. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :  

Research has shown that the human mind can process words at the rate of about 500 per minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate of about 150 words a minute. The difference between the two at 350 is quite large. So a speaker must make every effort to retain the attention of the audience and the listener should also be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication calls for good listening skills. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener.
Listening starts with hearing but goes beyond. Hearing, in other words is necessary but in a sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. While listening, one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with the ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Listening is to be understood as total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations. Good communication is essentially an interactive process. It calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. It relates to skills that can be developed. A good listener knows the art of getting much more than what the speaker is trying to convey. He knows how to prompt, persuade but not to cut off or interrupt what the other person has to say. At times the speaker may or may not be coherent, articulate and well organised in his thoughts and expressions. He may have it in his mind and yet he may fail to marshal the right words while communicating his thought. Nevertheless a good listener puts him at ease, helps him articulate and facilitates him to get across the message that he wants to convey. For listening to be effective it is also necessary that barriers to listening are removed. Such barriers can be both physical and psychological. Physical barriers generally relate to hindrances to proper hearing whereas psychological barriers are more fundamental and relate to the interpretation and evaluation of speaker and the message. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. 
Answer. Title : The Human Mind 

1. Words Process
1.1 Processing 500 w.p.m.
1.2 Speaking 150 w.p.m. 

2. Retain the Attn.
2.1 audience 2.2 listener 

3. Good Comm.
3.1 Hearing or listening
3.2 Conc.
3.3 Attention
3.4 Interpretation 

4. Listening barriers
4.1 Phy. hindrance
4.2 Psy.
(i) interpretation (ii) evaluation 

Abbreviations used :
1. w.p.m. – words per minute
2. Attn. – Attention
3. Comm. – Communication
4. Conc. – Concentration
5. Phy. – Physical
6. Psy. – Psychological 

Question. Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words.
Answer.Summary - Research has proved that the difference between processing and speaking rate is 350 words per minute which is quite large. Therefore, the speaker must retain the attention of the audience so, listener should not wander. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. For effective listening physical and psychological barriers must be removed. In short, good communication is necessary for an interactive process. 


9. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :  

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Sonali Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.
To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library. 

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music, etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh, “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.
Also, do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.
The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focussed system will follow.
She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.
Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects. More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. 
Title : Developing Concentration
1. Hurdles to Conc.
1.1 Radio, TV
1.2 Wandering thoughts
1.3 Noisy envirnmt. 

2. Technique of enhncmnt.
2.1 Avoid distracting factors
2.2 Study table away from window
2.3 Establish specific goals, time mngnt. 

3. Ultimate Help
3.1 Plan study & recreational hrs.
3.2 Don’t get disheartened
3.3 Discpln. the mind 

Abbreviations used :
1. Conc. – Concentration
2. envirnmt. – Environment
3. enhncmnt – Enhancement
4. mngnt. – Management.
5. hrs. – hours
6. Don’t – Do not
7. Discpln. – Discipline 

Question. Write a summary of the above in 80 words.
Answer.Summary - Mostly we have wandering thoughts due to radio, TV and noisy environment. We should find out the facts of our physical and internal environment which disturb our concentration. We can concentrate or study only when distractions are avoided. We should establish our goals and try to achieve them. Study and recreational hours should be well planned and adhered to. It is important to discipline the mind and not get disheartened. Concentration is most essential to study and achieve our goals in life. 


10. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :  

Despite all the research everyone of us catches cold and most of us catch it frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practises transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as Typhus and the Plague. But the problem of common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it. It is known that cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has as yet been isolated.There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist’s laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected. The fact that we can catch cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still we do not gain immunity from cold. Why? It may possibly be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the blood stream where anti-bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface. Or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protection from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet. 

Question. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. 
Answer.Title : Common Cold A Threat 

1. Fighting Common Cold
1.1 Cold common
1.2 Typhus and plague eradicat’d
1.3 Common cold diff. to solve 

2. Causes of Cold
2.1 Viral infection
2.2 Viruses — rhinoviruses
2.3 Affect lining of the nose 

3. Research
3.1 Dev. tech. of tissue culture
3.2 Aided virus research
3.3 Existence previously not known 

4. No protection
4.1 no imm. from cold
4.2 cold cells attack on surface
4.3 likely to suffer from cold 

Abbreviations used :
1. eradicat’d – eradicated
2. diff. – difficult
3. Dev. – Development
4. tech. – technique
5. imm. – immunity 

Question. Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made.
Answer.Summary - Cold is a common ailment, which everyone suffers at some point of life. Scientists have got rid of many diseases but the problem of common cold still exists. It is caused by viral infection, which affects the lining of the nose and other passages. Many developments have been made on tissue culture to discover large number of viruses but their existence is still unknown. The virus of cold attacks on the surface or from the immunity of many different viruses. There it is difficult to give guarantee protection to it and we are likely to suffer from cold.



Read the following passages for note making :

With the Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC) clearing the proposed Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) recently, the decks are cleared for the launch of a mission-mode exercise to universalise secondary education.

The Union Human Resource Development Ministry will now place the proposal before the Cabinet. Designed along the lines of the ongoing Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to universalise elementary education, the RMSA seeks to make secondary education “available, accessible and affordable” to all 15 and 16-year-olds by 2017. 

Another target of the RMSA is to ensure universal retention by 2020.

The estimated cost of the RMSA has been pegged at Rs. 42,705 crore in the XI Five Year Plan. Of this, Rs. 34,164 crore will be the Centre’s share. With the road map to universal retention being chalked out till 2020, the total spill over beyond the current Plan will be in the range of Rs. 54,000 crore. 

Under consideration for sometime now in the wake of an anticipated demand for secondary education as a result of SSA, the RMSA was conceived on the premise that eight years of schooling is insufficient. During the XI Plan, the proposal is to have a secondary school within five kilometres of every habitation. Through the RMSA, the government also plans to provide necessary infrastructure and resources to create higher capacity in secondary education; fill up the gaps in existing secondary schools; and give extra support for education of girls, rural children, Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, minorities and other weaker sections of society. As in the case with the SSA, the existing programmes for secondary education will be merged into the RMSA—“an umbrella scheme”—to create a holistic convergent framework for implementing various schemes. The additional teacher requirement is over two lakh. At present, there are around 10.82 lakh teachers in secondary schools with a Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) of 1:32. To fill the existing gap at a PTR of 1:30—recommended by the Central Advisory Board of Education—72,000 additional teachers will have to be recruited. This apart, 1.77 lakh more teachers will be needed to cater to the anticipated additional enrolment of 53.10 lakh.

At last count in 2005-06, the gross enrolment ratio for Classes IX and X—the target agegroup of the RMSA—was 52.26 percent. With the government’s focus till date being on elementary education, 58.86 percent of high schools are run by the private sector, Of these 31.08 percent are private unaided schools; thereby necessitating governmental intervention to increase capacity to broad-base secondary education.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations. (minimum 4) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.


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