Unseen Passage for Class 12 English Solved

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Class 12 English Unseen Passage

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Unseen Passage for Class 12

1. A Russian proverb advises us not to buy a house, but the neighbourhood. While till some years ago, it was impossible to dictate who lived with you in the same quarters, today when you think of buying a home, you could actually create your own dream neighbourhood- thanks to the Internet and the group buying model.

2. The group buying model has been applied in different industries, from cars to baby merchandise to pet care products . Now, the trend is catching on in the real estate sector, with many sites as well as broking firms offering group deals on real estate projects in India. 3. The way it works is simple. Take xxx.com for example. This is an online and offline integrated platform which showcases property. It uses social media networks to let buyers know about possible good deals, and leaving it to them to do some viral marketing. once a large group of buyers is thus developer and helps negotiate a suitable discount.

4. Since, the developer doesn’t have to pay for the marketing, it is willing enough to pay these companies a transaction fee which is a percentage of the total value of the deal. For the buyers, it offers the rates at no fee, thus making it a win-win proposition for all involved.

5. The developer also benefit by getting substantial cash flow, giving them a good amount of working capital. “In today’s real estate scenario, bulk buying could be the answer to the market slump and the long awaited cash flow,” says the Founder of xxx. com.

6. Sometimes, the discount size is not to be sneered at. Discounts on group buying vary from 5-30 percent, the average divergence from market rate being 25-30 percent.

7. Customer ‘buy-in’ is the model. But is it temporary fad? In a way, the online group buying set-up is similar to the model developers share sixth speculators, who buy in bulk even before the project gets kick-started and get discounts of 30-40 percent. They pay 50 percent of the property value upfront. Group buying companies prove more beneficial for developers as they get away with providing lesser discounts than to speculators.

8. Some sound a note of caution on the trend. Present conditions are conductive for this business model as group buying works well in a situation where stocks are moving slowly, markets are jittery and there is ample supply. It may not work in a seller’s market.

9. Another caution is very often the builders do not offer the best inventory to the group in terms of location and utility. The buyers have to use their astute Judgement to avoid such traps.

Question. The discount size on group buying, compared to usual discount to speculators is usually-
(i) less
(ii) more
(iii) equal
(iv) unpredictable
Ans : (ii) more

Question. Which of the following may be the objective of the passage?
(i) To reveal less discounts being offered by the developers
(ii) To highlight the problems f housing industry
(iii) To highlight the importance of neighbourhood in one;s life
(iv) To improve information on group buying trends of property 
Ans : (iv) To improve information on group buying trends of property

Question. Group buying of real estate is done
(i) mainly offline
(ii) only offline
(iii) only through brokers
(iv) either on-line or off-line
Ans : (iv) either on-line or off-line

Question. xxx.com are the ____
(i) Developers
(ii) Financiers
(iii) Loan provider
(iv) None of these
Ans : (iv) None of these

Question. The group buying model certainly did not start with
(i) cars
(ii) real estate
(iii) pet care products
(iv) baby products
Ans : (ii) real estate

Question. Which of the following best describes the meaning of the Russian proverb being quoted?
(i) It is better to rent a house than to buy it.
(ii) Don’t buy a single flat, buy multiple flats
(iii) Fools build houses wise people live in them
(iv) None of these
Ans : (ii) Don’t buy a single flat, buy multiple flats

Question. Which of the following is one of the questions posed in the passage?
(i) Is group buying model a temporary fad?
(ii) Is the builder offering you the best inventory?
(iii) Should we buy a house or the neighbourhood?
(iv) Are present market conditions conducive for this business ?
Ans : (i) Is group buying model a temporary fad?

Question. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
(i) The buyers, though have to play higher fee and price, get their dream neighbourhood
(ii) The customer buy in model is not dependent on market conditions
(iii) Group buying companies don’t buy with the same objective as that of speculators
(iv) The buyers/developers offer the best available property to the group buyers
Ans : (iii) Group buying companies don’t buy with the same objective as that of speculators

Question. In Which of the following situations, Customer ‘buy-in’ model may not work?
(i) Buyer’s market
(ii) When markets are booming with ample supply
(iii) When there is short supply
(iv) When houses are comparatively cheap
Ans : (iii) When there is short supply

Question. Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage ?
(i) The Speculators also buy in bulk
(ii) Social media network is used for marketing group buying
(iii) The group buying companies take a transaction fee from both Buyers as well as Developers
(iv) The Speculators get a better deal in terms of discounts as compared to that of other Group buying companies
Ans : (iii) The group buying companies take a transaction fee from both Buyers as well as Developers

Question. Choose the word(s) which is most nearly the same in meaning of the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
DICTATE
(i) read
(ii) manipulate
(iii) speak
(iv) wish
Ans : (iii) speak

Question. Choose the word(s) which is most nearly the same in meaning of the word(s) printed in bold, as used in the passage
CATCH ON
(i) Continue on
(ii) get interested
(iii) enthusiastic about
(iv) become popular
Ans : (iv) become popular

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning of the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
FAD
(i) period
(ii) trend
(iii) focus
(iv) luxury
Ans : (iii) focus

Question. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
ASTUTE
(i) intelligent
(ii) sharp
(iii) insider
(iv) naive
Ans : (iv) naive

Question. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
INTEGRATED
(i) inorganic
(ii) refreshed
(iii) isolated
(iv) volatile
Ans : (iii) isolated

Unseen Passage with multiple choice questions for Class 12

1. Scientists have developed a gel that helps brains recover from traumatic injuries. It has the potential to treat head injuries suffered in combat, car accidents, falls, or gunshot wounds. Developed by Dr. Ning Zhang at Clemson University in South Carolina, the gel is injected in liquid form at the site of injury and stimulates the growth of stem cells there.

2. Brain injuries are particularly hard to repair, since injured tissues swell up and can cause additional damage to the cells. So far, treatments have tried to limit this secondary damage by lowering the temperature or relieving the pressure at the site of injury. However, these techniques are often not very effective.

3. More recently, scientists have considered transplanting donor brain cells into the wound to repair damaged tissue. This method has so far had limited results when treating brain injuries. The donor cells often fail to grow or stimulate repair at the injury site, possibly because of the inflammation and scarring present there. The injury site also typically has very limited blood supply and connective tissue, which might prevent donor cells from getting the nutrients they require.

4. Dr. Zhang’s gel, however, can be loaded with different chemicals to stimulate various biological processes at the site of injury. In previous research done on rats, she was able to use the gel to help re-establish full blood supply at the site of brain injury. This could help create a better environment for donor cells. In a follow-up study, Dr. Zhang loaded the gel with immature stem cells, as well as the chemicals they needed to develop into full-fledged adult brain cells. When rats with severe brain injuries were treated with this mixture for eight weeks, they showed signs of significant recovery.

5. The new gel could treat patients at varying stages following injury, and is expected to be ready for testing in humans in about three years.

Question. What kind of brain injuries can the gel mentioned in the passage cure?
(i) Car accidents
(ii) Gunshot injury
(iii) Falls
(iv) All of these
Ans : (iv) All of these

Question. Why, according to the author, brain injuries are hard to mend?
(i) As it is difficult to find good doctors to repair it
(ii) As injured tissues swell up and can cause additional damage to the cells
(iii) As the person dies instantly after his head is injured
(iv) All of the above
Ans : (ii) As injured tissues swell up and can cause additional damage to the cells

Question. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage?
(i) Dr. Ning Zhang at Clemson University in South Carolina has developed a gel which could help brain recover from injuries
(ii) The gel developed for curing brain injuries is injected in gaseous form at the site of injury and stimulates the growth of stem cells there
(iii) The gunshot wounds are the worst injuries that a brain could experience and could not be cured by anyone
(iv) The new gel would be ready for testing in humans in the next five years
Ans : (i) Dr. Ning Zhang at Clemson University in South Carolina has developed a gel which could help brain recover from injuries

Question. Which animal has Dr. Ning Zhang use to test her gel?
(i) Cows
(ii) Mouse
(iii) Rats
(iv) Dogs
Ans : (iii) Rats

Question. Which of the following statements is/are false in context of the study performed by Dr. Ning Zhang?
A. She applied the gel on rats to help reestablish full blood supply at the site of brain injury
B. Dr. Zhang loaded the gel with immature stem cells, as well as the chemicals they needed to develop into full-fledged adult brain cells
C. When rats with minor brain injuries were treated with the mixture produced by her, for eight weeks, they showed signs of significant recovery
(i) Only A
(ii) Only C
(iii) Both A and C
(iv) Only B
Ans : (ii) Only C

Question. Why do the donor cells often fail to grow according to the author?
(i) Because of the inflammation and scarring present there
(ii) Because it is the most sensitive part of the body
(iii) Because the brain cells once damaged take three years to repair altogether
(iv) Because the donor cells are always infected
Ans : (i) Because of the inflammation and scarring present there

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage
TRAUMATIC
(i) Painful
(ii) Outrageous
(iii) Minor
(iv) Ridiculous
Ans : (iii) Minor

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage
STIMULATES
(i) Manage
(ii) Vibrate
(iii) Dedicate
(iv) Prevents
Ans : (iv) Prevents

Question. Choose the word most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
COMBAT
(i) Fight
(ii) Demonstration
(iii) Harmony
(iv) Accord
Ans : (i) Fight

Question. Choose the word most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold, as used in the passage
SIGNIFICANT
(i) Daily
(ii) Noticeable
(iii) Leisurely
(iv) Accurate
Ans : (ii) Noticeable

Unseen Passage for Class 12 with answers pdf

1. A recent survey has brought back focus on teenage smoking. According to the survey 80% of smokers form the habit when they are minors. It is estimated that one out of five teenage smokers smokes about 10 cigarettes everyday. What is more, teenage smokers are no longer satisfied with nicotine and are increasingly taking to deadly contraband like marijuana and cannabis.

2. Initially, smoking starts from curiosity but soon becomes a habit. Oblivious of the fatal dangers involved, nascent smokers ignore even the statutory warning inscribed on the pack.

3. Forming the habit of smoking in an early age is often attributed to a whole lot of psychological reasons but the problem is also precipitated by the glamorous representation of smoking by stars on the silver screen, linking it with style.

4. Peer pressure is another big reason for minors taking up smoking. Besides, locally manufactured tax free cigarettes also push them towards this habit. These cigarettes are particularly popular among the youth, as they are available at a significantly lower price than the legally manufactured cigarettes. According to a FICCI report on these cigarettes, the government suffers huge revenue loss annually due to them, while youths fall victim to smoking. While in the short term smokers get sick due to common ailments, in the long run their lungs get badly affected. Diseases such a oral cancer are associated with tobacco use in any form.

5. Smokers can quit smoking by monitoring some of their food habits. Food rich in vitamin C reduce the urge to smoke. Also milk, celery, carrot, fruits and vegetables when taken before smoking, compel the smoker to quit the habit.

Question. Why have teenagers started consuming contraband and have not remained satisfied with nicotine consumption only?
(i) It is cheaper than the cigarettes.
(ii) It does not have harmful impact on health.
(iii) People consuming contraband are not looked down upon by the society.
(iv) Not mentioned in the passage
Ans : (iv) Not mentioned in the passage

Question. Why are locally manufactured cigarettes sold at a lower price?
(i) Because they are popular.
(ii) No tax is levied on these cigarettes
(iii) The manufacturers of these cigarettes intend to capture a bigger market share.
(iv) They have a limited market and therefore cannot be sold at a higher price.
Ans : (ii) No tax is levied on these cigarettes

Question. Which of the following is false in context of the passage?
(i) Most of the smokers start smoking at an early age.
(ii) Smoking leads to psychological diseases leading to a weak memory.
(iii) People drawn to smoking are charmed by big stars showing smoking on the screen
(iv) Smoking affects lungs if the habit is not got rid of at an early stage.
Ans : (ii) Smoking leads to psychological diseases leading to a weak memory.

Question. Which of the following has been mentioned about the FICCI report in the passage?
(i) Tax free cigarettes help keep a vigil on frequent smokers as they are sold at few shops only.
(ii) More and more people indulge in smoking as tax free cigarettes remain available at a reduced price.
(iii) Tax free cigarettes cause a huge revenue loss to the government.
(iv) Only 2 and 3
Ans : (iv) Only 2 and 3

Question. Which of the following food items do not help smokers get rid of smoking?
(i) Vegetables
(ii) Fruits
(iii) Celery
(iv) Chocolate
Ans : (iv) Chocolate

Question. Why do people tend to ignore the statutory warning inscribed on the pack of cigarettes?
(i) The warning fails to convey the message for which it is mentioned.
(ii) They care little about their health.
(iii) They possess little knowledge of the risks associated with its consumption.
(iv) Not mentioned in the passage
Ans : (iv) Not mentioned in the passage

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
ANNUALLY
(i) Deliberately
(ii) Steadily
(iii) Yearly
(iv) Finally
Ans : (iii) Yearly

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage. 
NASCENT
(i) Seasoned
(ii) Smart
(iii) Conventional
(iv) New
Ans : (iv) New

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
COMPEL
(i) Allow
(ii) Venerate
(iii) Prove
(iv) Force
Ans : (i) Allow

Question. Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
OBLIVIOUS
(i) Careless
(ii) Acquaint
(iii) Negligent
(iv) Mindful
Ans : (iv) Mindful

Short Unseen Passage Class 12 with questions and answers

1. “Rivers should link, not divide us,” said the Indian Prime Minister expressing concern over interstate disputes and urged state governments to show “understanding and consideration, statesmanship and an appreciation of the other point of view.”

2. Water conflicts in India now reach every level; divide every segment of our society, political parties, states, regions and sub-regions within states, districts, castes and groups and individual farmers. Water conflicts within and between many developing countries are also taking a serious turn. Fortunately, the “water wars”, forecast by so many, have not yet materialized. War has taken place, but over oil, not water. Water is radically altering and affecting political boundaries all over the world, between as well as within countries. In India, water conflicts are likely to worsen before they begin to be resolved. Till then they pose a significant threat to economic growth, security and health of the ecosystem and the victims are likely to be the poorest of the poor as well as the very sources of water-rivers, wetlands and aquifers.

3. Conflicts might sound bad or negative, but they are logical developments in the absence of proper democratic, legal and administrative mechanisms to handle issues at the root of water conflicts. Part of the problem stems from the specific nature of water, namely that water is divisible and amenable to sharing; one unit of water used by one is a unit denied to others; it has multiple uses and users and involves resultant trade-offs. Excludability is an inherent problem and very often exclusion costs involved the issue of graded scales and boundaries and need for evolving a corresponding understanding around them. Finally, the way water is planned, used and managed causes externalities, both positive and negative, and many of them are unidirectional and asymmetric.

4. There is a relatively greater visibility as well as a greater body of experience in evolving policies, frameworks, legal set-ups and administrative mechanisms dealings with immobile natural resources, however contested the space may be. Reformists as well as revolutionary movements are rooted in issues related to land. Several political and legal interventions addressing the issue of equity and societal justice have been attempted. Most countries have gone through land reforms of one type or another. Issues related to forests have also generated a body of comprehensive literature on forest resources and rights. Though conflicts over them have received much more serious attention, have been studied in their own right and practical as well as theoretical means of dealing with them have been sought. In contrast, water conflicts have not received the same kind of attention.

Question. According to the author, which of the following is/are consequences of water conflicts?
A. Trans-border conflicts between developing countries.
B. Water bodies will remain unused and unaffected till the conflict is resolved.
C. Water conflicts have altered the political boundaries within countries.
(i) Only A
(ii) Only B
(iii) Only C
(iv) None of these
Ans : (i) Only A

Question. Why does the author ask readers not to view conflicts too negatively?
A. Most countries have survived them easily.
B. They bring political parties together.
C. They only affect the grass-root levels.
(i) Only A
(ii) Only B
(iii) Only C
(iv) Neither A, B nor C
Ans : (iv) Neither A, B nor C

Question. The author’s main objective in writing the passage is to
(i) showcase government commitment to sole the water distribution problem
(ii) make a strong case for war as the logical resolution for water conflicts
(iii) point out the seriousness of the threat posed by unresolved water conflicts
(iv) describe how the very nature of water contributes to water struggles
Ans : (iii) point out the seriousness of the threat posed by unresolved water conflicts

Question. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
(i) Water wars are taking place between many developing countries.
(ii) There have been several legal interventions
in India to govern the use of water resources.
(iii) The poor people are worst affected by water conflicts.
(iv) None of these
Ans : (iii) The poor people are worst affected by water conflicts.

Question. What is the Prime Minister’s advice to resolve water disputes?
(i) Link all rivers to make national grid.
(ii) Politicians alone can solve the problem.
(iii) Bridges and dams can resolve water issues.
(iv) Make consensual and conscious efforts.
Ans : (iv) Make consensual and conscious efforts.

Question. Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?
(i) Deeper problems exist at the root of all water conflicts.
(ii) Competing uses of water is a cause of water conflict.
(iii) In India water conflicts affect all levels.
(iv) Only social stability is unaffected by water disputes.
Ans : (iv) Only social stability is unaffected by water disputes.

Question. According to the author, which of the following factors aggravates water disputes?
(i) Political interventions
(ii) Excessive analysis of the issue
(iii) Reformist movements by political parties
(iv) None of these
Ans : (iv) None of these

Question. Which of the following can be inferred about water conflicts?
(i) Water management techniques like dams, linking rivers, etc. have negative consequences.
(ii) There is no real solution to water conflicts.
(iii) Despite receiving much attention water conflicts remain unresolved.
(iv) None of these
Ans : (i) Water management techniques like dams, linking rivers, etc. have negative consequences.

Question. According to the passage, which of the following is a limitation of water resulting in disputes?
(i) Water is not a divisible resource.
(ii) Manipulation of water distribution is easy.
(iii) Water is an interconnected resource.
(iv) None of these
Ans : (iv) None of these

Question. Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
RADICALLY
(i) suddenly
(ii) equally
(iii) completely
(iv) moderately
Ans : (iii) completely

Question. Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
INHERENT
(i) functional
(ii) intense
(iii) persistent
(iv) characteristic
Ans : (iv) characteristic

Question. Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
MATERIALIZED
(i) mattered
(ii) interfered
(iii) hidden
(iv) presented
Ans : (iv) presented

Question.  Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
ASYMMETRIC
(i) unsteady
(ii) equilibrium
(iii) discouraging
(iv) superior
Ans : (ii) equilibrium

Question. Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
DENIED
(i) considered
(ii) assigned
(iii) concerned
(iv) fined
Ans : (ii) assigned

Question. Pick out the word which is the closest in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
WORSEN
(i) bounty
(ii) accept
(iii) better
(iv) stable
Ans : (iii) better 

Unseen Passage for Class 12 with answers

1. Political independence came to Ceylon in a totally different manner than it did to Burma. In the case of Ceylon there was no Japanese occupation, no revolutionary fervent and no sudden break with the past. The colony did not even experience the sort of liberation struggle the Indian National Congress organised. There was no civil disobedience or noncooperation and no imprisonment of national leaders.

2. As there was no struggle in Ceylon, neither was there the usual concomitant of a struggle, the hardening of national solidarity through national sacrifice. Ceylon emerged from colonial rule through a process of peaceful negotiations, but this was not an altogether unmixed blessing. An essential element in the explanation of the unique way in which Ceylon achieved political independence is the fact that the process of Westernisation had gone further there than in other colonial territories. To start with, Ceylon had experienced nearly four hundred and fifty years of colonial rule, first under the Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British. From schools founded and run by Christian missions - and in the British era more and more modelled on British lines, even to the extent in some cases of emulating English public schools - there emerged a thoroughly Anglicised upper class with generally conservative political leanings. These Ceylonese were so much like their colonial masters in outlook, manners, and social habits that they were often called “brown sahibs”, and negotiations between them and the British were almost in the nature of dealings between gentlemen of the same club.

3. After the First World War, this elite group formed a Ceylonese National Congress, which it hoped would grow in strength like its Indian prototype. But it collapsed a few years before the country achieved independence. During the period of British rule, Ceylonese leaders felt no inclination to make any radical or egalitarian appeals for public support and nationalism struck no roots among the masses. It is no wonder, then, that the British felt that such men could safely be entrusted with even larger instalments of political responsibility.

Question. The character of liberation struggle of the Ceylonese people for achieving political independence from the colonial masters resembled that of
(i) Burma
(ii) India
(iii) Vietnam
(iv) None of these
Ans : (iv) None of these

Question. The Ceylonese struggle for freedom was characterised by
(i) civil disobedience
(ii) revolutionary fervent
(iii) terrorist activities on the part of the nationalists
(iv) peaceful negotiations
Ans : (iv) peaceful negotiations

Question. What, according to the author, is the usual concomitant of a liberation struggle?
(i) National solidarity is strengthened through national sacrifice.
(ii) It leaves much bitterness behind between the rulers and the ruled.
(iii) It accentuates divisive forces in the polity that emerges after the grant of independence.
(iv) People receive practical training in governance.
Ans : (i) National solidarity is strengthened through national sacrifice.

Question. Political independence came to Burma after this country had experienced
(i) Japanese occupation during Second World War
(ii) revolutionary fervent
(iii) both of these
(iv) neither of these
Ans : (iii) both of these

Question. Before achieving political independence, Ceylon had experienced colonial rule for
(i) nearly one hundred and fifty years
(ii) nearly four hundred and fifty years
(iii) exactly three hundred years
(iv) nearly a century
Ans : (ii) nearly four hundred and fifty years

Question. Which of the following had kept Ceylon under colonial rule?
(i) The Portuguese
(ii) The Dutch
(iii) The British
(iv) All of these
Ans : (iv) All of these

Question. The Anglicised upper class of Ceylon emerged
(i) from the successors of the erstwhile native rulers
(ii) from schools founded and run by Christian missions in Ceylon.
(iii) from the mixed breed of the British and the Ceylonese people
(iv) from the sons and daughters to the English officials and administrators who settled in Ceylon as a matter of Convenience.
Ans : (ii) from schools founded and run by Christian missions in Ceylon.

Question. The Anglicised upper class of Ceylon formed for the purpose of political independence was
(i) Ceylonese National Congress
(ii) a radical party
(iii) Socialist Democratic Forum
(iv) Ceylonese Freedom Party
Ans : (i) Ceylonese National Congress

Question. Why according to the author, did nationalism not strike any roots among the masses in Ceylon?
(i) Because the Ceylonese people were not politically conscious at all.
(ii) Because English education had so indoctrinated the minds of these Ceylonese people that they thought it a sacrilege to think in terms of any opposition to their colonial masters
(iii) Because during the period of British rule, Ceylonese leaders felt no inclination to make any radical or egalitarian appeals for public support
(iv) All of these
Ans : (iii) Because during the period of British rule, Ceylonese leaders felt no inclination to make any radical or egalitarian appeals for public support

Question. Who were known as “brown sahibs”?
(i) The Englishmen serving in Ceylon
(ii) The native peasantry of Ceylon
(iii) The Anglicised upper class people of Ceylon who received education in school modelled on British lines
(iv) Those who were born of inter-race marriages
Ans : (iii) The Anglicised upper class people of Ceylon who received education in school modelled on British line.

Unseen Passage for Class 12 with questions and answers

1. The emotional appeal of imperialism never completely stilled the British conscience. However, liberal thinkers throughout the nineteenth century argued that democracy was incompatible with the maintenance of authoritarian rule over foreign peoples. To think imperially was to think in terms of restrictive and protective measures; in defiance of the revealed truths of classical economics. Thus, when the British government took over responsibility for India from the East India Company in 1858, many politicians were conscious of saddling Britain with a heavy burden.

2. In the first seventy years of the nineteenth century, enlightened British liberals looked forward to the day when India would stand on its own feet. Even in the heyday of colonialism, British radicals continued to protest that self-proclaimed imperialists, however honourable their motives, would place fait accompli before the country and commit blunders of incalculable consequence. The danger, they felt, was all the greater because British foreign policy still remained a stronghold of the aristocracy, while that related and persuasive lobby, the British officer class, also had a vested interest in imperial expansion.

3. It took the humiliation of the Boer war to teach the British Government what it would cost to hold an empire by force. However this fact did not escape Gandhi, the supreme tactician of the Indian liberation movement. He saw what some perceptive British thinkers had much earlier recognised, namely, that Britain could not long continue to rule India except with the cooperation of many sections of its population. Once that cooperation was withdrawn, the foundation of British authority in India would crumble; furthermore, the Indian nationalist leaders were able to exploit the aversion of the British liberal conscience to methods used by the local colonial rulers in combating Indian non-cooperation.

Question. The emotional appeal of imperialism never completely stilled the British conscience. What does it mean?
(i) The glorification resulting from imperialism never completely blinded the British people to the unjustness of their imperialist policy (ii) The glorification resulting from the
establishment of sway overseas did not make the British people complacent
(iii) The British people became so dull and emotionally so cold, that the glorification of their country attained through imperialism never induced them to feel proud of this phenomenon
(iv) All of these
Ans : (i) The glorification resulting from imperialism never completely blinded the British people to the unjustness of their imperialist policy

Question. What does the term authoritarian rule mean?
(i) Rule of the authority of law
(ii) Dictatorial rule of an aristocrat unaccompanied by the rule of law
(iii) Arbitrary exercise of power by officials
(iv) Rule having stability
Ans : (ii) Dictatorial rule of an aristocrat unaccompanied by the rule of law

Question. What according to the author did the maintenance of imperialism result in?
(i) International conflicts
(ii) Economic exploitation of the subject peoples
(iii) Mental enslavement of the subject peoples
(iv) Erection of trade barriers in the foreign trade and other restrictive measures
Ans : (iv) Erection of trade barriers in the foreign trade and other restrictive measures

Question. What do you think where the revealed truths of classical economics?
(i) Laissez faire and free trade
(ii) Allowing only subsistence wages to the workers
(iii) Clamping of artificial restrictions of foreign trade
(iv) Wholesale nationalization of the means of production
Ans : (i) Laissez faire and free trade

Question. What according to the author was the attitude of the British liberals towards the British imperialist and colonial policy?
(i) One of active cooperation
(ii) One of only verbal co-operation
(iii) One of total indifference
(iv) One of repeated protests
Ans : (iv) One of repeated protests

Question. Which class of British society was the force behind the imperialist foreign policy of Britain?
(i) The common masses
(ii) The middle class
(iii) The officer class
(iv) The aristocracy
Ans : (iv) The aristocracy

Question. Which class of the British society had vested interest in imperial expansion?
(i) The middle class
(ii) The labour class
(iii) The officer class
(iv) The aristocracy
Ans : (iii) The officer class

Question. Who was the supreme tactician of the Indian liberation movement?
(i) Mrs Annie Beasant
(ii) The enlightened British liberals themselves
(iii) Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak
(iv) Mahatma Gandhi
Ans : (iv) Mahatma Gandhi

Question. What did Mahatma Gandhi believe was the factor that facilitated the continuance of British rule of India?
(i) The cooperation extended to the British by many section of the Indian population
(ii) The support lent to them by the kings and princes of the Indian native states
(iii) The sympathies of the fifth columnists towards the British
(iv) The mutual squabbles of the Indian politicians
Ans : (i) The cooperation extended to the British by many section of the Indian population

Question. What according to you would be the most suitable title for the passage?
(i) British imperialism and India
(ii) British liberals attitude towards imperialism
(iii) Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian Freedom Movement
(iv) The emotional appeal of British ‘imperialism’
Ans : (ii) British liberals attitude towards imperialism

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

To take a peek at the pertinent issue of climate change, BBC World News and Synovate, an international market research company, conducted a comprehensive survey across 22 markets on six continents.

The areas covered in the second global opinion “2008-Survey” include levels of concern among the public, what people are doing about climate change and who they believe was responsible for the drastic climate change taking place worldwide. This year’s results show that respondents’ attitude towards climate change has shifted since the survey was conducted last year. This is especially apparent in the US where levels of concern have jumped dramatically from 57 percent in 2007 to 80 percent this year.

Announcing the key findings of the survey, Jeremy Nye, Head of Audience Insight at BBC World News, says “In nearly all markets, citizens believe it is up to ordinary people to change their behaviour; the way in which global issues and personal behaviour are intertwined explains the increasing relevance of international news.”

Pointing out that the survey conducted in 2007 saw high levels of concern about climate change across the globe, Steve Garton, Executive Director, Media at Synovate, says “After a year of unprecedented media attention, it seems that extra focus has had an impact. More people than ever are concerned. And more people than ever are doing something about it. There’s a real ‘it’s up to me’ sense of responsibility.”

The survey finds out that the concern over climate change is translating through many facets of consumer behaviour. Compared with 68 percent in 2007, this year 72 percent of respondents sounds concerned about climate change with the inhabitants of Spain and Brazil at the top of the survey, appearing most worried at 88 per cent and 86 percent respectively. Countries showing an increase in the level of concern about the issue from last year are India, Russia, the US, Denmark, France, Poland and Britain. Of those who blame one country as responsible for climate change on Earth, the respondents listed the US (down to 61 percent from 66 percent in 2007) and China (up to 18 percent from 14 percent in 2007). Interestingly, the majority of respondents in the US still nominated their own country as the most responsible for climate change.

An overall 47 percent believe that the main factors causing climate change are human causes and pollution, recognising that we are to blame and should accept responsibility.

Staff Reporter

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviation (Min. 4) wherever necessary use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 48 words.

 

More Note-Making for Class 12 English with Answers......

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : 

It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realised there is a big difference between the two words.

Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening.

Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening. Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.

We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no. Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.

What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once, we have done that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind, but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.

Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really
listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub headings. Use recognisable abbreviations (wherever necessary - minimum four) and a
format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

Suggested Answers for the above mentioned question:

(a) Title-Listening Verses Hearing

1. Listening vs. Hearing
1.1 Difference between the two synonyms
1.2 Hearing but not listening
1.3 Paying attention
1.4 Hearing as a physical phenomenon
1.5 Consciously using your mind
1.6 Mind full of needless chatter
1.7 Accommodating what is said

2. Judgement about the speaker
2.1 Prejudiced and preconceived notions
2.2 Dying to pro. right or wrong
2.3 Neg. mindset
2.4 Proving our ver. of things right

3. Ideal way of listening
3.1 Listen first
3.2 Listen with awareness
3.3 Think before you judge

3.4 Words unspoken leave a feeling of tension and negativity
3.5 Speak your mind out

4. Listening to understand people
4.1 Imbibe what is not spoken
4.2 Times when we don’t listen to people who matter
4.3 Triggers mis.

Abbreviations used :
1. vs. – verses
2. Neg. – negative
3. ver. – version
4. don’t – do not
5. pro. – pronounce
6. mis. – misunderstanding

(b) Summary 

Sometimes, we hear people but do not listen to them attentively. The difference between the two synonyms is that one is a physical phenomenon while the other is a conscious use of mind. We, as listeners, often have preconceived notions about the speaker. We come prepared with a negative mindset, tend to prove them wrong and pounce with our own version of things. Ideally, we should listen to them, understand their perception and stop judging them in order to avoid misunderstandings.

 

More Note-Making for Class 12 English with Answers......

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

A vast blanket of pollution stretching across South Asia is cutting down sunlight by 10 per cent over India, damaging agriculture, modifying rainfall patterns and putting hundreds of thousands of people at risk, according to a new study. 

 

The startling findings of scientists working with the United Nations Environment Programme indicate that the spectacular economic growth seen in this part of the world in the past decade may soon falter as a result of this pollution. 

 

Research carried out in India indicates that the haze caused by pollution might be reducing winter rice harvests by as much as 10 per cent, the report said.

 “Acids in the haze may, by falling as acid rain, have the potential to damage crops and trees. Ash falling on leaves can aggravate the impacts of reduced sunlight on earth’s surface. The pollution that is forming the haze could be leading to several hundreds of thousands of premature deaths as a result of higher levels of respiratory diseases,” it said. Results from seven cities in India alone, including Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, estimate that air pollution was annually responsible for 24,000 premature deaths in the early 1990s. By the mid 1990s they resulted in an estimated 37,000 premature fatalities. 

 

“The haze has cut down sunlight over India by 10 per cent (so far) - a huge amount! As a repercussion, the North West of India is drying up.” Prof. V. Ramanathan said when asked specifically about the impact of the haze over India. Stating that sunlight was going down every year, he said. “We are still in an early stage of understanding of the impact of the haze. 

 

Asked whether the current drought in most parts of India after over a decade of good monsoon was owing to the haze, he said, “it was too early to reach a conclusion. If the drought persists for about four to five years, then we should start suspecting that it may be because of the haze.”

 

 India, China and Indonesia are the worst affected owing to their population density, economic growth and depleting forest cover. The preliminary results indicate, that the build up of haze, a mass of ash, acids, aerosols and other particles is disrupting weather systems, including rainfall and wind patterns and triggering droughts in western parts of the Asian Continent. The concern is that the regional and global impacts of the haze are set to intensify over the next 30 years as the population of the Asian region rises to an estimated five billion people.

 

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. 

 

(b) Write a summary of the passage in 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

 

Suggested Answers for the above mentioned question:

(a) 1. Vast pollution blanket across South Asia
1.1 Drastic chngs. in weather
1.2 Puts ppl. at risk
1.3 Economic grwth. may falter

2. Threats of acid rain and resprtry. diseases
2.1 Potential dmge. to crops.
(a) Falling ash
• reduced sunlight
• aggrvtd. impact on crops and plants
2.2 Premature death due to resprtry diseases

3. Pollution haze over India
3.1 Reduction in sunlight by 10%
3.2 Drying North West of India

4. Impacts of polltn. haze to intensity
4.1 Rising popltn. of the Asian Region
(a) Worst affected countries
• India
• China
• Indonesia
4.2 Economic grwth. but deplting. forest covr.
(a) Preliminary Results
• Haze build up
• Mass of ash, acid, aerosols, etc.
• Disruption in weathr. sys., rainfall and wind patterns

Abbreviations used :
1. chngs. – changes
2. ppl. – people
3. grwth. – growth
4. resprtry. – respiratory
5. polltn. – pollution
6. popltn. – population
7. deplting. – depleting
8. covr. – cover
9. dmge. – damage
10. aggrvtd. – aggravated
11. weathr. – weather
12. sys. – system

(b) Summary Vast pollution blankets across South Asia. This has brought drastic change in the weather, putting people at risk. As a result, economic growth may falter because of drought in India. Acid rain and premature death due to respiratory disease are threatening plants and humans alike. With India, China and Indonesia being the worst affected countries, the rising population, economic growth and depleting forests in the Asian regions are causing impacts of the pollution haze to intensify and disrupt weather systems.

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :

Most of the southern and western States, and even the normally surplus States in the north-east, are now going through a major power crisis. Power generation has suffered because of poor hydel storage, thanks to a truant monsoon. Compounding the problem, States that usually come to the help of large consumers in such a predicament have themselves run into difficulties in thermal generation on account of vagaries in coal supply. As a result, States like Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala have to contend with a major shortage. In Tamil Nadu, there is no power cut, officially, but unscheduled load shedding is freely resorted to. At the national level, the gap between power generation and demand has been widening steadily, and it is due not a little to the persisting slippage in targeted addition to the generation capacity during the last two Plan periods. Power-deficit Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, which have been regularly buying power from the Central undertakings, could not do so this year because their neighbours, who are also in distress, happen to draw their full entitlement from the regional grid. Also, none of the power trading corporations has been able to make up the shortfall. The result : power outages, tripping, power cuts, and unscheduled load shedding for a few hours everyday.

If the supply side of power position is thus beset with severe constraints, the demand side has its own quota of problems for the power managers and administrators. While the overall shortfall in electricity demand for the country is placed at 15-20 percent, the shortfall faced by several States in peak demand now is reported to range from 20 percent to 30 percent. Specifically, following the sharp rise in the price of diesel, there has been a big jump in demand from and consumption by the farm sector. Confronted as they are with heightened difficulties on both supply and demand fronts, the State Electricity Boards are constantly working on contingency plans to tide over the crisis and fondly hoping that the monsoon will revive and fill the hydel reservoirs before long. The authorities would do well to use more purposefully the grid structure and the consultation mechanism that already exist. Some restrictive measures may be inevitable, but the least the consumers expect is transparency. Whether it is staggering of supply, rotational load shedding or any other, prior intimation to the user-group will surely go some way in mitigating the hardship.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (Min. 4) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. 5

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

 

 

More Note-Making for Class 12 English with Answers......

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

Although stupidity is commonly defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she is not very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.

First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still in the roof. We call this absent-minded. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by the stupid behaviour.

The next type-serious stupidity-is more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advise given to other is also serious stupidity. An example is the person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention maybe to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help an amateur will only worsen the situation.

Even worse is the third of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-weekold kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections exposure or the wheels of passing vehicle. Yet they are able to tell themselves that they will find ‘nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is – ‘But I did not think.....’ This, however, is not an inadequate excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 

Suggested Answers for the above mentioned question:

(a) 1. Meaning of stupidity
1.1 lacking intell.
1.2 no good judgement
1.3 senseless

2. Level of stupidity
2.1 amusing behaviour
2.2 serious stupidity
– pract. jokes
– irresp. advice
– even worse

3. Absent – minded
3.1 inconve.
3.2 embarrassment

4. Unintentional stupidity
4.1 throw away anyth.
4.2 hurt or kill poor things

Abbreviations used :
1. intell. – intelligence
2. pract. – practical
3. irresp. – irresponsible
4. inconve. – inconvenience
5. anyth. – anything

(b) Title : Types of Stupidity Summary

The word stupidity comes from Latin word which means ‘senseless.’ It is commonly defined as a lack of normal intelligence. A person who does not use good judgement or sense is termed as stupid. First level of stupidity is harmless and it is defined by absent-mindedness. Second level of stupidity is about practical jokes which are more dangerous for example, putting salt in sugar container, etc. Third level of stupidity is when somebody unintentionally throws away poor things or animals. Another type of stupidity is when a successful businessman has many office affairs. It is because he thinks he can get away with his actions without taking any responsibility.

 

More Note-Making for Class 12 English with Answers......

 Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives.

Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home - as a companion to her own son - a little boy who happened to have a hunchback. She had warned her son to be careful not to refer to his disability, and to go right on playing with him as if he were like any other boy.

The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion: “Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued: “It is the box in which your wings are and some day God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel.”

Often it takes a third eye, or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me.

The impact of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock-bottom or lonely, or even deserted. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of pain and distress.

The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hate and hardheartedness prevail, they get channelled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is often the plus factor that helps build character. It helps us to accept and to overcome suffering. It creates lasting bonds and its reach is infinite. 

It is true that there is no shortage of destructive elements - forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process, destroy themselves - but at the same time there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look only at gloom and doom - let’s seek out positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

Suggested Answers for the above mentioned question:

13. (a) 1. Life’s tests are its plus factors.
1.1 Plus factors, such as ovrcmng. suffrng. moulds chrctr.
1.2 Simple hearted see plus factors more readily
1.3 Often a change in focus is req.

2. Nether Springs
2.1 Flow into lonely depressed ppl’s. lives
2.2 Brings peace and patience
2.3 Leads to recovery

3. Life forces v/s death forces
3.1 Forces of destrcn. malice, hate and hardheartedness.
(a) Chanld. through
• Malice
• Hate
• Hard-heartedness
(b) Forces of death and destrcn.
• Less physical
• More psychic of psychological
• Self-destructive by seeking other’s
destrcn.
3.2 Forces of life regenerate hope of joy
(a) Prevails where
• Openness
• Peace of good heartedness

4. Love v/s fear
4.1 Love overcomes fear, life force triumphs
4.2 Love builds, fear destroys
4.3 Love builds character
(a) Helps in
• Accepting and overcoming sufferings
• Creating lasting bond
• Infinite reach

5. Conclusion
5.1 Seek positivity and happiness
5.2 Find what is awaiting discovery

Abbreviations used:
1. ovrcmng. – overcoming
2. ppl. – people
3. suffrng. – suffering
4. destrcn. – destruction
5. chrctr. – character
6. req. – required
7. v/s – versus
8. Chanld. – Channelled

(b) Summary Life’s tests are its plus factors. Overcoming sufferings is a plus factor, which moulds character. Simple hearted see plus factors readily. However, a change in focus is also required. Nether springs flow into lonely and depressed people’s life, bringing peace and patience and eventually, recovery. Hate, malice, etc. are channelled as forces of destruction. Forces of life generates hope of joy. Life force triumphs when love overcomes fear. Love creates as lasting bond therefore, one should seek positivity and happiness.

Title : Seeking Happiness

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