Worksheet for Class 10 Geography Contemporary India Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Class 10 Geography students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for Contemporary India Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries in standard 10. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 10 Geography will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 10 Geography Worksheet for Contemporary India Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Question. What was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India?
Answer : Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty.
Question. What is the desired growth rate of manufacturing in the next decade?
Answer : 12 per cent.
Question. With what objective was The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) set up?
Answer : To achieve the desired growth rate of manufacturing in the next decade by 12 %
Question. What is the key to decision of the factory location?
Answer : Least cost.
Question. To which all categories do iron and steel industries fall?
Answer : Mineral based, Basic, Heavy, large scale industries.
Question. Name the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.
Answer : Textile industry.
Question. Why are jute products still in demand in spite of stiff competition from synthetic products?
Answer : Because it is biodegradable and ecofriendly.
Question. Name any two manufacturing goods in which India ranks first.
Answer : Gur and khandsari, sponge iron
Question. Name the minerals used in the smelting of iron in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1.
Answer : Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone
Question. What is the per capita consumption of steel per annum in India?
Answer : 32 kg.
Question. Name the two undertakings through which most of the steel is marketed in India.
Answer : Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) , Tata Steel. (TISCO)
Question. Name the country, which is the largest producer and consumer of steel in the world.
Answer : China
Question. Name the region where iron and steel industries are concentrated the maximum.
Answer : Chotanagpur plateau
Question. Name the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
Answer : Aluminium smelting
Question. What is the rank of India in the production of nitrogenous fertilizers?
Answer : Third
Question. Name any two raw materials used in cement industry.
Answer : limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
Question. When and where was the first cement plant set up in India?
Answer : Chennai in 1904.
Question. Name the electronic capital of India.
Answer : Bangalore
Question. Mention any two major industrial solid wastes.
Answer : Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags.
Question. What is the upper limit of investment in a small-scale industry?
Answer : One crore rupees
Question. What do you mean by an agro-based industry? Give two examples.
Answer : The industry that gets its raw materials from agriculture is known as an agro- based industry. Examples — cotton, woollen.
Question. What are called joint sector industries? Give examples.
Answer : Joint sector industries are jointly managed (owned) by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
Question. What are called cooperative sector industries? Give examples.
Answer : Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Examples — the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coin industry in Kerala.
Question. On what basis is the industrial sector classified into public and private sectors?
Answer : The industrial sector is classified into public and private sectors on the basis of ownerships of enterprises.
Question. What is the objective of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC)?
Answer : The objective of NMcc is to improve the productivity of the manufacturing sector.
Question. Explain light industry with examples.
Answer : Light industries use light raw materials and produce light goods. Examples — electrical industries.
Question. What happened to our traditional industries during the colonial period?
Answer : Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-make cloth from England.
Question. Which sector is considered to be the backbone of development?
Answer : Manufacturing sector is considered to be the backbone of development.
Question. How will our country be able to compete in the international market?
Answer : Our manufactured goods must be at par in the quality with those in the international market.
Question. How many cotton and human made fibre textile mills are there in India?
Answer : There are nearly 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in India.
Question. What is manufacturing?
Answer : Manufacturing refers to producing goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products. It helps transforming the raw materials into finished goods on a large scale and thus help earning profit as finished goods are costlier than raw materials.
Question. Why have sugar mills shifted to the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra in recent years?
Answer : In recent years, the mills have shifted to the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra. This is because:
(i) The cane produced here has higher sucrose content.
(ii) The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
(iii) Super industry can thrive only if it is run by corporatives and they are popular and more successful in the southern states.
Question. Why is iron and steel industry called the basic industry? Explain any three reasons.
Answer : The iron and steel industry is called the basic industry because of the following reasons:
(i) All the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on this industry for their machinery.
(ii) Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defense, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and variety of consumer goods.
(iii) This industry contributes a lot in providing employment opportunities to the people.
(iv) It helps in the development of agriculture.
Question. On the basis of reading of the graph, answer the following questions:
(i) What was the status of India and China in steel production in the 1950s?
(ii) What is the status of China today?
(iii) Which country was the largest exporter of steel in the year 2004?
Answer : (i) In the 1950s, India and China produced almost the same quantity of steel.
(ii) Today, China has become the largest producer of steel.
(iii) In the year 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel.
Question. India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, We are not able to perform to our full potential. Give any four reasons.
Answer : There are several reasons behind this:
(i) Although India has modernised its steelmaking considerably, however, nearly 6% of its crude steel is still produced using the outdated open-hearth process.
(ii) Labour productivity in India is still very low.
(iii) Steel production in India is also hampered by power shortages.
(iv) Insufficient shipment capacity and transport infrastructure too hinder the growth of Indian steel industry.
(v) India is deficient in raw materials required by the steel industry.
Question. Classify industries according to their main role.
Answer : According to their main role, industries are of two types:
(i) Basic or Key: Industries which supply their raw materials to manufacture other goods.
Example: Iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
(ii) Consumer: Industries produce goods for direct use by consumers.
Example: Sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines etc.
Question. (i) Mention the two industries that are supported by the cotton textile industry.
(ii) What are the major problems faced by the cotton textile industries in India?
Answer : (i) The two industries that are supported by the cotton textile industry are:
(ii) The major problems faced by the cotton textile industries in India are:
• Power supply is erratic.
• Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular.
• The output of labour is low.
• This industry faces stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industry.
Question. (i) Which are the two major challenges faced by sugar industry of India?
(ii) Why should the sugar mills be located close to the sugar producing regions of the country?
Answer : (i) Challenges faced by sugar industry:
• Old and inefficient methods of production.
• Transport delays in Sugarcane reaching to the factories. As once cut the sugar in the cane begins to decrease and has to be transported to the factory within 48 hours.
(ii) Sugar mills should be located close to the sugar producing regions of the country due to the following reasons:
• The raw-material used in sugar industry is bulky.
• Sucrose contents reduce if there is a delay in haulage.
Question. Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.
(i) Used to drive machinery (5)
(ii) People who work in a factory (6)
(iii) Where the product is sold (6)
(iv) A person who sells goods (8)
(v) Thing produced (7)
(vi) To make or produce (11)
(vii) Land, Water and Air degraded (9)
Answer : (i) POWER, (ii) WORKER, (iii) MARKET
(iv) RETAILER, (v) PRODUCT, (vi) MANUFACTURE
Question. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
Answer : Differences between integrated steel plants and mini steel plants:
Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world still it is unable to perform to its full potential mainly due to the following problems:
(a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal
(b) Lower productivity of labour
(c) Irregular supply of energy
(d) Poor infrastructure
Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have given a boost to the industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.
Question. How much is the contribution of manufacturing sector to the national income of the country?
Answer : Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17% of GDP. Out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 per cent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25-30%. The trend of growth rate in manufacturing over the last decade has been around 7 per cent per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%. Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 per cent per annum. With appropriate policy intervention by the government, manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.
Question. Describe in brief the aluminium smelting industry in India with emphasis on:
(i) Any three uses of aluminium.
(ii) Any three locational factors for the industry.
(iii) Any two states where aluminium smelting is done on a large scale.
Explain the aluminium smelting industry with reference to the following.
(i) Two major uses of aluminium
(ii) Names of two smelting states
(iii) Annual production
(iv) Any two locational factors
Answer : (i) Three uses of aluminium:
• It combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
• It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
• It has become a popular substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
(ii) Two locational factors:
• Assured source of raw material at minimum cost.
• Regular supply of electricity.
(iii) Two states where aluminium smelting is done on a large scale:
• West Bengal
(iv) Annual Production:
• About 600 million tonnes per annum.
Question. Why is aluminium smelting gaining popularity?
Answer : It is gaining popularity due to the following reasons:
i) It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. Bauxite from which aluminium is obtained is widely available in India. India has vast reserves of bauxite.
ii) Aluminium is used as a substitute to steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
iii) It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when mixed with other metals.
iv) It is used in manufacturing of airplanes, utensils, electrical wires and other equipments, house fabrications etc. Hence its demand is increasing. India produced 15.29 lakh million tonnes of aluminium in 2008-09.
v) It is a cheap metal compared to copper, bronze and iron.For all these reasons aluminium smelting is gaining popularity.
(Which is the second important metallurgical industry of India? Why is it getting popularity? Write the answer above)
Question. State two prime factors that determine the location of Aluminium industry. Name the states where aluminium plants are located.
a) Availability of regular supply of cheap electricity
b) Availability of bauxite. (Explain points)
➢ The aluminium plants are located.in Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal (C.T. KUMB)
Question. Name any two heavy organic and inorganic chemicals produced in India. What is its use? Where is it manufactured?
i. Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals, which is used for manufacturing of articles like synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuff, drugs and pharmaceuticals. The organic chemical industries are located near oil refineries and petro-chemical plants.
ii. Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical, which is used for the manufacturing of fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, paints and dyestuffs. Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents. Other inorganic chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis.
Question. How has chemical industry gained an important position in the Indian economy? Explain any six points in this regard.
i) Chemical industry is growing fast. Rapid growth has been recorded in both organic and inorganic chemical industries.
ii) Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals, which is used for manufacturing of articles like synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuff, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
iii) Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical, which is used for the manufacturing of fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics paints and dyestuffs.
iv) Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents. Other inorganic chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis.
v) Production of pesticides has contributed much to agriculture by controlling harmful insects and weeds.
vi) In the production of pharmaceuticals India leads in the developing countries. It contributes 14 % of production of entire manufacturing sector and its share in export is also 14%
Question. How does industrial pollution degrade environment?
OR How do manufacturing industries contribute to polluting and environmental degradation?
Answer : Manufacturing industries are responsible for environmental degradation and pollution.
There are four types of pollution created by these industries.
(a) Air pollution: It is caused by the smoke or gases emitted by industries which contain poisonous gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Air-borne particulate materials consist of both solid and liquid particles. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain both types of particles. Air pollution affects human health, animals, plants, materials and the atmosphere.
(b) Water pollution: The industrial effluents are discharged into rivers. They contain both organic and inorganic materials. Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilizers, plastics and rubber are the common pollutants of water. The principal industries, which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refining, tannery and electroplating. Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel stags are the major solid wastes in India. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal power plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling
(c) Land and soil pollution: Industrial wastes containing toxic metal, glass, and harmful chemicals pollute land and soil. Unscientific processing in many industries like ceramic industry and cement industry create a lot of dust containing chemicals, settle down the land which causes pollution. Industrial effluents even
cause acid rain, which degrade the land.
(d) Noise pollution: Unwanted noise arise from industry and transport vehicles create a lot of problems.The noise from mechanical saws and pneumatic drills is unbearable and it may cause impairment of hearing (deafness)
Question. Suggest a few measures to control environmental degradation and pollution that is caused by industries.
Or Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industries.
(a) There should be proper planning in the selection of industrial sites. It should not be in a congested area.
(b) Equipments used in industries should be designed better to prevent smoke.
(c) Avoid using coal in industries and use of oil as fuel to prevent smoke.
(d) Equipments like inertial separators, fabric filters, smoke stags, electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers should be used to control particulate matter in the air.
(e) Discharge the industrial effluents after proper treatment.
(f) Equipments or generators should be fitted with silencers.
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