Worksheet for Class 10 History India and Contemporary World II Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Class 10 History students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for India and Contemporary World II Chapter 2 Nationalism in India in standard 10. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 10 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 10 History Worksheet for India and Contemporary World II Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Question : Due to the effect of the Non-Cooperation movement on the plantation workers in Assam, they:
(a) left the plantations and headed home.
(b) went on strike.
(c) destroyed the plantations.
(d) None of these
Answer : A
Question : Which one of the following Viceroys announced a vague offer of dominion status for India in October 1929?
(a) Lord Mount batten
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Irwin
(d) None of these
Answer : C
Question : Who founded the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930?
(a) Alluri Sitaram Raju
(b) C.R. Das
(c) M.R. Jayakar
(d) Dr B.R. Ambedkar
Answer : D
Question : The Non-cooperation Movement began on which one of the following dates?
(a) January 1921
(b) November 1921
(c) December 1921
(d) May 1921
Answer : A
Question : In which of the following places Mahatma Gandhi organised satyagraha for the first time in India?
Answer : D
Question : In which of the following Indian National Congress sessions was the demand of‘Purna Swaraj’ formalised in December 1929?
(a) Madras Session
(b) Lahore Session
(c) Calcutta Session
(d) Nagpur Session
Answer : B
Question : When did the Jallianwalla Bagh incident take place?
(a) On 13 April 1919
(b) On 15 August 1919
(c) On 27 October 1919
(d) On 10 March 1919
Answer : A
Answer : On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.
Multiple Choice Questions
Question. Which event among the following led to the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement?
(a) Arrival of the Simon commission
(b) Working at the firm without payment
(c) Violation of salt tax by Gandhi
(d) Fall in the demand for agriculture goods.
Answer : (a) Arrival of the Simon commission
Question. Who among the following gave the idea of Satyagraha to the world?
(a) Bhagat Singh
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Rabindranath Tagore
(d) Dwarkanath Tagore
Answer : (b) Mahatma Gandhi
Question. Identify the place where Mahatma Gandhi went to organize the Satyagraha Movement amongst Cotton Mill Workers in 1918:
Answer : (d) Ahmedabad
Question. Identify the correct full form of HSRA among the following:
(a) Hindustan Source Republic Army
(b) Hindustan Socialist Republic Arm
(c) Hindustan Socialist Republican Army
(d) Hindustan Socialist Republic Arm
Answer : (d) Hindustan Socialist Republic Arm
Question. Identify the correct statement about Sir Mohammad Iqbal :
(a) He was the President of Congress Party.
(b) He was the President of Muslim League in 1930.
(c) He was Gandhiji's devout disciple.
(d) He was the supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity.
Answer : (b) He was the President of Muslim League in 1930.
Question. Following image is a print of famous freedom fighter. His image is central figure surrounded by sacred institutions of different faiths like temple, church, masjid etc. Identify the leader among the following options.
(a) Mahatama Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(d) Bhagat Singh
Answer : (c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Question. HSRA was founded in the year________. Choose the correct option:
Answer : (b) 1928
Question. Bhagat singh and Batukeshvar threw bomb in Legislative Assembly in the year__________.
Choose the correct option:
Answer : (c) 1929
Question. Who among the following took command after Martial law was imposed in India following hartal due to imposing of Rowlatt Act?
(a) General Dyer
(b) Lord Irwin
(c) John Simon
(d) Lord Curzon
Answer : (a) General Dyer
Question. In which of the following sessions of Congress the Non-Cooperation proposal was adopted?
(a) Calcutta Session
(b) Nagpur Session
(c) Madras Session
(d) Bombay Session
Answer : (b) Nagpur Session
Question. Which year among the following is associated with Second Round Table Conference?
Answer : (c) 1931
Question. Identify the appropriate reason from the following options with regard to non-participation of Industrial workers in the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(a) Industrialists were close to the Congress
(b) British offered them good salaries
(c) They were reluctant to boycott foreign goods
(d) Growth of socialism
Answer : (a) Industrialists were close to the Congress
Question. Which one of the following statements is not related to Gandhi-Irwin Pact?
(a) Gandhiji agreed not to launch any further mass agitation against the British.
(b) Gandhiji agreed to participate in Round Table Conference.
(c) Gandhiji decided to call-off the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(d) The British agreed to release the political prisoners.
Answer : (a) Gandhiji agreed not to launch any further mass agitation against the British.
Question. Swaraj Party was formed by_______ within Congress.
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Abdul Gafar Khan
(c) Subhas Chandra Bose
Answer : (d) C. R. Das
Assertion and Reasoning Based Questions
Mark the option which is most suitable:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Question. Assertion: The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Reason: People in the Civil Disobedience Movement were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
Answer : (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Question. Assertion: Gandhiji entered into Gandhi-Irwin Pact on 5 March 1931.
Reason: Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both put in jail, the Congress was declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
Answer : (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Question. Assertion (A): A growing anger against the colonial government was thus bringing together various groups and classes of Indians into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of the twentieth century.
Reason (R): Diverse groups were all tortured by British in one way or the other.
Answer : (a) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
Question. Assertion: Rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes.
Reason: However, they were deeply happy when the movement was called off in 1931 with revenue rates being lowered.
Answer : (c) A is true but R is false.
One Word Answer Type Questions
Question. Who was responsible for Jallianwala Bagh massacre ?
Answer : General Dyer.
Question. At which of the Congress Session was the noncooperation programme adopted ?
Answer : Nagpur Session of Congress.
Question. When did Rowlatt Act pass ?
Answer : 1919
Question. Which Act gave the government power to suppress political activity and detain political prisoners without trial ?
Answer : Rowlatt Act.
Question. Who started the Khilafat Movement ?
Answer : Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
Question. Who led a Peasant Movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
Who was the Sanyasi leader of the Awadh peasants ?
Answer : Baba Ramchandra.
Question. When did the Simon Commission arrive in India?
Answer : 1928
Question. Who announced a vague offer of 'Dominion status' for India in 1929?
Answer : Viceroy Lord Irwin.
Question. Where did the congress session held in 1929 ?
Answer : Lahore.
Question. Who composed the song 'Vande Mataram' ?
Answer : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why General Dyer fired upon innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?
Answer : General Dyer aimed to produce a moral effect and to strike terror in the minds of Satyagrahis.
Question. What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?
Answer : At the Calcutta Session of Congress, Gandhiji convinced other leaders to initiate a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.
Question. What was 'Champaran Movement' ?
Answer : The Champaran Movement was the first Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1916 at Champaran district in Bihar, India.
Question. What was 'Kheda Movement' ?
Answer : The Kheda Movement was the second Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1917 at Kheda district in Gujarat, India.
Question. Who formed Swaraj Party ?
Answer : C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the congress.
Question. Who was Sir John Simon ?
Answer : Six John Simon was the chairman of the simon commission in India.
Question. What did British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahi ?
Answer : Satyagrahi were compelled to rub their noses on the ground, squat on the streets and do salaam to all Britishers.
Question. What was the impact of Non-Cooperation Movement on imports?
Answer : The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value declined from 102 crore to 57 crore.
Question. Why boycott of British institutions posed a problem?
Answer : For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. But these were slow to come up and teachers and students started trickling back to government schools.
Question. Why Kheda farmers protested against Britishers ?
Answer : Being affected by crop shortage and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue.
Question. How Awadh movement was materialised ?
Answer : As the movement permeated in 1921, the houses of landlords and merchants were razed to the ground, bazaars were sacked and grain hoards were captured.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Write a short note on Swadeshi Movement.
Answer : The Swadeshi movement was an epoch-making phase of Bengal. It was doubtless, quixotic and had created a sensation in all over Bengal. The news of partition of Bengal in 1905 evoked resentment among the Bengalese and created an uproar in Bengal. Down to July 1905,the partition plan had been opposed through an intensive use of the conventional 'moderate' methods of press campaigns, numerous meetings and petitions particularly in Dacca districts. However, the efforts turned into a great fiasco which paved the way for new techniques --- boycott of British goods as suggested by Krishnakumar Mitra's weekly and later accepted by Surendranath Banerjee at the town hall conference meeting of 7 August. Rabindranath aimed to celebrate rakhi-bandhan and Ramendrasunder Trivedi's request for Anarandhan on the day of partition had some positive effects. According to some, boycott became the starting point for the formulation of a whole range of new methods, and the abrogation of the partition came to be regarded as a mere stepping stone in a struggle for Swaraj or complete independence. The partition issue provoked anger among the Bengalese and the Swadeshi movement was a repercussion of it.
Question. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Answer : Salt March was an efficient icon of resistance against colonialism as:
(i) Diverse regional and social groups could identify with the product ''salt'' as it was considered an important food item.
(ii) Salt tax was a symbol of the oppression of British rule.
(iii) It would affect the British economy. Mahatma Gandhi arrived at Dandi on 12th March, 1930 and transgressed the salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water.
Question. How did icons and symbols advocate nationalism?
Answer : The icons and symbols that propagated nationalism are enumerated as follows:
(i) With the subsequent development of national movement, nationalist leaders became acquainted with icons and symbols in uniting people and fostering a feeling of nationalism in them.
(ii) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(iii) By 1921, Gandhiji designed the theme of the Swaraj flag that united all castes, communities and ethnicities in one thread. It also represented the Gandhian motto of selfhelp.
Question. What were the circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident? Describe in brief the reaction of the people immediately after the incident.
Answer : The Rowlatt Act (1919) was passed by the British government despite the unified opposition of the Indian members. This Act empowered the government to subdue political activities and detain any person without trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted non-violent civil disobedience against unjust laws. Rallies were organised in varied cities. Enraged by the popular revolt, British administration imposed Martial Law in Amritsar. On 13th April, 1919, General Dyer killed innocent people who assembled in Jallianwala Bagh. The news spread like a wildfire. As a matter of fact, hundreds and thousands of people took to the streets and there were strikes, clashes and mass protest.
Question. Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi aimed to call off Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement adopted a violent turn at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.). At this place, people set the police station ablaze in which 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhi Ji wanted to cease violence at any cost.
Question. Analyse any three reasons for slow down of NonCooperation Movement in cities.
Answer : The Non-Cooperation Movement initiated with the participation of the middle class stratum in cities and gained momentum. In the cities, the pace of movement subsequently slowed down. The few reasons are enumerated as follows:
(i) Khadi cloth was relatively more expensive than mass produced mill clothes. As a matter of fact, poor people could not afford to buy it.
(ii) The boycott of British institutions posed a serious problem as substitute Indian institutions were unavailable.
(iii) Students and teachers began to take positions in colonial government schools. At the same time, lawyers resumed their work in government courts.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. How did icons and symbols of India develop the values of collective belongingness ?
Answer : Based on icons and symbols of India, flag of our country helped in developing the feeling or value of nationalism.
(i) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, the very first tri-colour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(ii) It had eight lotuses, symbolising eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
(iii) In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi ji designed the Swaraj Flag.
(iv) This particular flag had a tri colour (red, green, white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(v) As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
Question. What you have learnt from the portrait of Bharat Mata in our National Movement ?
Answer : (i) The portrait of Bharat Mata depicted by Abanindranath Tagore became very popular. In this portrait, Bharat Mata was projected as an ascetic figure. She was demure, collected, divine and spiritual. She epitomised power and manifested motherland. The portrait was shown as disseminating learning, food and clothing. At the other end of the spectrum, the mala underscored her ascetic quality. Subsequently, the image of Bharat Mata gained different variations. Devotion to Bharat Mata became a symbol of one's nationalism.
(ii) By comprehending the importance of portrait of Bharat Mata in our National Movement, I have imbibed the elements of inspiration that motivated me.
Question. How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain.
Answer : The ''Civil Disobedience Movement'' initiated the boycott of foreign clothes and picketed liquor shops. Peasants showed their reluctance in paying revenues and taxes. At the same time, village officials resigned. The Colonial Government prevented the members from participating in national movements.
(i) In many places, forest people transgressed forest laws and prevented people from entering the reserved forests and grazing cattle. Enraged by the development, the colonial government started detaining the Congress leader one by one. This resulted in the outbreak of violent clashes in various places.
(ii) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a staunch disciple, was detained in April 1930. Various people were assassinated who protested the movement.
(iii) Mahatma Gandhi was detained. Industrial workers of Sholapur captured police post, municipal buildings and railway stations.
(iv) Being frightened by these developments, the British Government adopted a policy of brutal repression.
(v) Peaceful demonstrators were attacked. Women and children were mercilessly beaten and about 1, 00,000 people were detained.
Question. Who had organized the dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association‘ in 1930? Describe his achievements.
Answer : Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
(i) The ''Depressed Classes Association'' was in favour of separate electorate for dalits.
(ii) It uplifted the dalits against the dominance of upper caste hindus.
(iii) It gave the depressed classes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils in proportion to their population.
(iv) The ''Depressed Classes Association'' enhanced the dignity of marginalised sections of society such as SCs, STs and OBCs.
Question. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer : There was no consensus of opinions among the political leaders related to the aspect of separate electorate. The reasons are as follows:
(i) The Nationalist Congress leaders felt that the policy of 'Divide and Rule' would enervate the Nationalist Movement.
(ii) The Muslim leaders thought that their interest could only be guarded in a Muslim state and not in a Hindu majority state.
(iii) Dr. B.R Ambedkar, the leader of the depressed classes, hugely favoured separate electorates. However, Gandhiji felt that separate electorate for Dalits would slow down the pace of their societal integration. Subsequently, Ambedkar accepted the stance of Gandhiji and concluded 'Poona Pact'.
Question. If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhi ji's call for Swaraj ? Give reasons for your response.
Answer : I would have responded to the clarion call of Mahatma Gandhi ji in a befitting mannul positive nonviolent way. The attainment of truth and non-violent methods was indispensable and Mahatma Gandhi ji was the paragon of non-violent protest movement. He worked strenuously to attain Swaraj and contributed towards the freedom movement. As a matter of fact, I would have followed him and responded to his call.
Question. Read the below text carefully and answer what did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said Satygraha is active resistance ?
Mahatma Gandhi on Satyagraha: 'It is said of ''passive resistance'' that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong. This power is not Passive Resistance; indeed it calls for intense activity. The movement in South Africa was not passive but active'.
'Satyagraha is a not a physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction. In the use of Satygraha, there is no 'ill-will'.'
'Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very Substance of the soul. That is why this force is called Satygraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love. Nonviolence is the 'supreme dharma'.'
'It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the War-god and all of them can become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own'.
Answer : The following points are enumerated as follows:
(i) Satyagraha inflicts no pain on the adversary. Satyagraha is the source of soul.
(ii) Truth is the potential substance of soul and it is the reflection of Satygraha.
(iii) It does not mean decimation. It means to clear the minds of the adversaries. It helps to convert destructive or diabolical of thoughts into constructive elements by showing love, compassion and truth.
Question. How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement? Explain.
Answer : Nationalism permeated the whole sub-continent when people discovered some unifying elements that tied them together. This sense of collective belonging came through the experience of united struggle. This nationalism was associated with the tenet of cultural nationalism. Cultural nationalism was a central theme in Indian social and political discourse since the late-nineteenth century. With the development of nationalism, the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata, composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote "Vande Mataram" (Hail Motherland) as a hymn to the motherland. Notions of nationalism also formed through a movement revitalise Indian folklore tradition. The land of Bharat is tantamount to the ideal of Bharat Mata or mother goddess. Moreover, the name Bharat Mata implies the mother of Bharat, who is deemed to be a glittering prototype of manhood. In order to project the nation a transcendental realm the literature voluntarily turned to the image of a deified mother goddess (or Bharat Mata) who is the national personification of India. The term 'mother' is used in the reference to the nation (Rashtriya) and it capitalizes on cultural elements, construed as race and identity. The image of Bharat Mata traverses the national contours and is grafted on the symbolic figures of the West like- Marianne, Mother Russia and Britannica. These emblematic figures bear a national connotation without any religious implication. In 1921, Gandhiji designed the Swaraj flag. It was a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the center. Another method of spawning a feeling of nationalism was through the reinterpretation of history. Many influential Indians delved into the past tradition to explore the rich histories and glorious achievements of the country.
Question. Explain the social groups responsible for Non-cooperation movement.
Answer : Diverse social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement were : (i) Middle class people in the town (ii) Plantation workers (iii) Peasants and tribal people and (iv) Business class people.
(i) Middle class people in the towns : The middle stratum consisted of students, teachers and lawyers reacted to the clarion call of Non-Cooperation and social boycott of institutions.
(ii) Plantation Workers : The workers participated in the movement and wanted to rescue themselves from the garb of darkness. They hoped that the Gandhi ji Raj would give them power to secure land in their own villages.
(iii) Peasants and Tribal people : Peasants and tribal people participated in the movement. The movement was directed against the talukdars and landlords. In their opinion, 'Swaraj' meant non-payment of land dues i.e. land revenues. When the colonial government compelled the tribal people to contribute 'begar' for the construction of road, they revolted.
(iv) Business Class People : Merchants and traders showed their reluctance to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 and its value depreciated from ` 102 crore to ` 57 crore.
Question. How did Non-Cooperation Movement start with participation of middle class people in the city? Explain its impact on the economic front.
Answer : The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was started by the Congress Party in January 1921. Initially, this movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students, teachers and lawyers gave up their institutions and profession and joined the movement. This movement began in different cities across the country. The Non-Cooperation Movement dramatically affected the economy of British India. The economic effects of Non-Cooperation Movement are as follows :
(i) As foreign goods and foreign clothes were boycotted, the Import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees.
(ii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or invest in foreign trade
(iii) As people discarded imported clothes and started to use Indian clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. In this way, the Non-Cooperation Movement helped boost the Indian economy while it affected British economy at home.
Question. Define the term ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.‘ Describe the participation of rich and poor peasant communities in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer : The term 'Civil Disobedience' meant "Refusal by a large group of people to obey particular laws or pay taxes, usually as a form of peaceful political protest". In the countryside, rich peasant communities - like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh - were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organizing their communities, and at times, forcing reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. Poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support 'no rent' campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
Creating Based Questions
Question. Use the information provided along with the terms given in the box to form a coherent passage to describe the demonstration of Swaraj in the plantations. Also include information that is not mentioned below to complete it.
" Workers, Assam, village, plantation workers, Gandhi Raj, railway and steamer strike, police "
For plantation workers in Assam.....freedom meant right to move freely..... no right to leave the tea gardens unattended.....workers defied the authorities.....felt Gandhi Raj.....was coming to help them and distribute land...... brutally beaten up by the police.
Answer : Workers too had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of swaraj. For plantation workers of Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of confined spaces in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers did not have the right to leave the tea gardens without permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They felt Gandhi Raj was coming to help them and distribute land to them in their villages. However, they never reached their destination. They were stranded on the way be railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police brutally beaten up.
Source/Case Based Questions
Question. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come. How could non-cooperation become a movement? Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Through the summer of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support for the movement. Many within the Congress were, however, concerned about the proposals. They were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920, and they feared that the movement might lead to popular violence. In the months between September and December there was an intense tussle within the Congress. For a while there seemed no meeting point between the supporters and the opponents of the movement. Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted. The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people. The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power — something that usually only Brahmans had access to. The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
(i) What was the declaration of Mahatama Gandhi in his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909 AD)?
Answer : (a) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(b) It had survived only because of this cooperation.
(ii) How was the Non-Cooperation Movement started?
Answer : (a) The Non-Cooperation movement began with the surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(b) A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
While the Rowlatt Satyagraha had been a widespread movement, it was still limited mostly to cities and towns. Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broadbased movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor - the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa). To defend the Khalifa's temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) Which of the following was the main objective of Rowlatt Act of 1919?
(a) To suppress the resentment developed in Indian society.
(b) To put control on radical elements.
(c) To put control on Gandhi's political activities.
(d) To stop Satyagrahis to take part in Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer : (a) To suppress the resentment developed in Indian society.
(ii) During World War I, Ottoman Empire was the part of:
(a) Allies Powers
(b) Central Powers
(c) Axis Powers
(d) None of the above
Answer : (a) Central Powers.
(iii) Which of the following was the main reason behind launching of Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) Suppression by the British government.
(b) Defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I.
(c) Now Gandhiji was popular enough to launch a nationwide movement.
(d) First time both major Indian communities were against the government.
Answer : (d) First time both major Indian communities were against the government.
(iv) Find out the incorrect statement from the following:
(a) At the end of World War II, Gandhiji became an important leader in Indian politics.
(b) Gandhiji toured India with Shaukat Ali to show Hindu-Muslim unity.
(c) In Nagpur session, Gandhiji succeeded to convince the Congress leaders to support Khilafat issue.
(d) Some of the leaders in Congress were not happy to take Khilafat issue.
Answer : (a) At the end of World War II Gandhiji became an important leader in Indian politics.
Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhideclared that British rule was established in India with thecooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of thiscooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in Indiawould collapse within a year, and swaraj would come. Howcould noncooperation become a movement? Gandhiji proposedthat the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin withthe surrender of titles that the government awarded, and aboycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislativecouncils, schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case thegovernment used repression, a full civil disobedience campaignwould be launched. Through the summer of 1920 MahatmaGandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popularsupport for the movement. Many within the Congress were,however, concerned about the proposals. They were reluctant toboycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920, andthey feared that the movement might lead to popular violence. Inthe months between September and December there was anintense tussle within the Congress. For a while there seemed nomeeting point between the supporters and the opponents of themovement. Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur inDecember 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted. The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various socialgroups participated in this movement, each with its own specificaspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but theterm meant different things to different people. The movementstarted with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands ofstudents left government-controlled schools and colleges,headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up theirlegal practices. The council elections were boycotted in mostprovinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party ofthe non- Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way ofgaining some power — something that usually only Brahmanshad access to. The effects of non-cooperation onthe economicfront were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquorshops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. Theimport of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its valuedropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many placesmerchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods orfinance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, andpeople began discarding imported clothes and wearing onlyIndian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handloomswent up.
Question. What was the declaration of Mahatma Gandhi in his famousbook Hind Swaraj (1909 AD)?
Answer. (a) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule wasestablished in India with the cooperation of IndiAnswer.
(b) It had survived only because of this cooperation.
Question. How was the Non-Cooperation Movement started?
Answer. (a) The Non-Cooperation movement began with thesurrender of titles that the government awarded.
(b) A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts andlegislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
Read the Source carefully.
Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
Answer. In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the MuslimLeague, reiterated the importance of separate electoratesfor the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minoritypolitical interests. His statement is supposed to haveprovided the intellectual justification for the Pakistandemand that came up in subsequent years. This is what hesaid:I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that theIndian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on thelines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian homelands is recognized as the basis of a permanent communalsettlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedomof India. The principle that each group is entitled for freedevelopment on its own lines is not inspired by anyfeelingof narrow communalism. A community which is inspired byfeelings of ill-will towards other communities is low andignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs,laws, religions and social institutions of other communities.Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Quran,even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Eventhough I love the communal group which is the source oflife and behavior and which has formed me what I am bygiving me its religion, its literature, it’s thought, its cultureand thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in mypresent consciousness. Communalism in its higher aspect,is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole ina country like India. The units of Indian society are notterritorial as in European countries. The principle ofEuropean democracy can-not be applied to India withoutrecognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslimdemand for the separate electorates are contrary to thespirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word‘nation’ a kind of universal amalgamation in which nocommunal entity ought to retain its private individuality.Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is aland of racial and religious variety. Add to this the generaleconomicinferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt,especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and youwill begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retainseparate electorates.
Answer. No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s notion of communalism. Hethought that it was the search for a community to developalong its own lines. He felt that religion is the basis onwhich thought process is based. He felt that religion bindspeople in one thread. It gives person a unified culture andliterature. In his opinion, Hindus and Muslims should live asseparate entities in the country. This line of thoughtbolstered separatism and subsequently led to the partitionof the country. In the modern period, communalism spawnsa negative implication. It is projected as conflict betweenpeople of varied religions and ethnicities, leading toviolence between them. In these days, it starts to influencepolitics and governmental relation.
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