CBSE Class 11 Economics Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence Assignment

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* The sole purpose of the British colonial rule in India was to reduce the country to being a feeder economy for Great Britain’s own rapidly expanding modern industrial base.

* Conditions in the Indian economy on the eve of independance

(i) Law level of economic development : the colonial govt, never made any sincere attempt to estimate India’s national and percapita income. The estimates given by Dr. Rao - growth of GDP was only 2% while the growth of percapita output was just 1/2 (0.5) percent.

(ii) Backward agricultural sector : Due to

A. Land tenure system - Zamidari system, Mahalwari system and Ryotwari system.

B. Forced commercialisation of Agriculture

C. Partitian of the country.

(iii) Less developed Industrial sector

A. De-industrialisation - decline of Indian handicraft industry.

B. Capital good industries were lacking

C. Limited operation of public sector

D. Discriminatory tarrif policy.

(iv) Unfavourable foreign trade :

(A) Net exporter of raw material and importer of finished good.

B. Britain had monopoly control on foreign trade.

C. Drain of India’s wealth.

(v) Adverse demographic condition :

A. High death rate - 40 per thousand.

B. High infant martality rate - 18 per thousand.

C. Mass Illiteracy - 83% illiterate.

D. Low life expectancy - 32 years

E. Low standard of living - people used to spend 80% to 90% of their income on basic needs.


1. What was the infant mortality rate of India during British rule?

2. State the life expectancy in India during British rule.

3. What do you mean by infant mortality rate?

4. Give the name of one economist who estimated India’s per capital income during colonial period.

5. What is meant by commercialisation of agriculture?

6. What was the motive behind the de-industrialisation by the colonial Govt. in India?

7. Which industries were adiversly affected due to partition.

8. What does the export surplus mean?

9. What percentage of India’s working population was engaged in secondary and tertiary sector during British rule?


1. Mention four features of India’s agriculture on the eve of independence.

2. What were the objectives of the British Govt. in bringing about infrastructural change in the Indian economy.

3. How would you explain the drain of wealth during the British rule.

4. Discuss occupational structure of Indian economy at the time of independence.

5. State three main features of Indian economy at the time of independence.

6. Mention the state of Indian industries on the eve of independence.


1. Critically appraise some of the shortfalls of the industrical policy pursucs by the British colonial administration.

2. What were the main causes of India’s agricultural stagnation during the colonial period.

3. Give a quantitative appraisal of India’s demographic profile during the colonial period.

4. Were there any positive contribution made by the British in India? Discuss.


1. Infant mortality rate was 18 per thousand.

2. Life expactancy was 32 years.

3. Infant mortality rate means number of deaths of children below the age of one year per thousand live birth.

4. Dada Bhai Nauroji, & Prof V.K.R.V. Rao

5. Commercialisation of agriculture means production of crops for sale in the market rather than for self - consumption.

6. (i) To get raw materials from India at cheap rate.

(ii) To sell British manufactured goods in Indian market at high prices.

7. Jute and textile industries.

8. When export of a country is more than import.

9. 10% in secondary sector and 18% in tertiary sector.


Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 11 Economics Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence Assignment



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