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Development Experience of India
A Comparison with Neighbours
- Points to Remember
- Development Path of India, Pakistan and China :
i) All the three countries started their developmental path at the same time. India and Pakistan got independence in 1947 and people’s Republic of China was established in 1949.
ii) All the three countries had started planning their development strategies in similar ways. India announced its First Five Year Plan in 1951, Pakistan announced in 1956 and China in 1953.
iii) India and Pakistan adopted similar strategies, such as creating a large public sector and raising public expenditure on social development.
iv) Both India and Pakistan had adopted ‘mixed economy’ model but China had adopted ‘Command Economy’ model of economic growth.
v) Till 1980s, all the three countries had similar growth rates and per capita incomes.
vi) Economic Reforms were initiated in China in 1978, in Pakistan in 1988 and in India in 1991.
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY :
i) After the establishment of People’s Republic of China under oneparty rule, all the critical sectors of the economy, enterprises and lands owned and operated by individuals, were brought under government control.
ii) A programme named ‘The Great Leap Forward (GLF) campaign
was initiated in 1958, which aimed at industrialising the country on a massive scale. Under this programme, people were encouraged to set up industries in their backyards.
iii) 1965, Mao Tse Tung introduced the ‘Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)’, under which studends and professionals were sent to work and learn from the countryside.
iv) In rural areas, communes were started, under which people collectively cultivated lands.
v) Reforms were introduced in Chna in phases.
vi) In the initial phase, reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. In the later phase, reforms were
initiated in the industrial sector.
vii) The reforms process also involved dual pricing. This means fixing the prices in two ways; farmers and industrial units were required
to buy and sell fixed quantities of raw materials and products on the basis of prices fixed by the governmen and rest were purchased
and sold at market prices.
viii) In order to attract foreign investors, Special Economic Zones (SEZ) were set up.
i) Pakistan followed the mixed economy model with co-existence of pulic and private sectors.
ii) Pakistan Introduced tariff protection for manufacturing of consumer goods, together with direct import controls on competing imports.
iii) The introduction of Green Revolution and increase in public investment in infrastructure in select areas, led to a rise in the production of foodgrains.
iv) In 1970’s, Capital goods industries were nationalised.
v) In 1988, structural reforms were introduced. Major thrust areas were denational is action and encouragement to private sector.
vi) Pakistan also received financial support from western nations and remittances from emigrants to the Middle East countries. This helped
the country in stimulating economic growth.
1. What type of economic system is followed in China?
2. Mention some examples of regional and economic groupings.
3. When were reforms introduced in all the three conomies?
4. Give the meaning of infant mortality rate.
5. In which country, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was introduced?
6. Between India and China, which country has higer value of Human Development Index?
7. Mention the major reason for the low population growth in China.
8. Name the programme started in China with the aim of industrialisation.
9. Which country has the highest life expectancy - India, China or Pakistan?
10. Out of China, Pakistan and India, which country has the largest contribution of the service sector to the GDP?
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