Read and download free pdf of Class 8 Science Microorganisms Exam Notes. Students and teachers of Class 8 Science can get free advanced study material, revision notes, sure shot questions and answers for Class 8 Science prepared as per the latest syllabus and examination guidelines in your school. Class 8 students should download this study material which will give them more knowledge for all chapters in Science and all important topics which are scoring and can get you more marks. Students should also download free pdf of Chapter wise Notes for Class 8 Science prepared by school teachers as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books and syllabus issued this year and also download free worksheets and question papers available here to get higher scores in school exams and tests, also click here for more Study Material for Class 8 Science
Study Material for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
Class 8 Science students should refer to the following Pdf for Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe in Class 8. These notes and test paper with questions and answers for Class 8 Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
Class 8 Science Microorganisms Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.
Covers the following topics:
1.Occurence of microbes
2.Major groups of microorganism
3.Classification of microorganism
4.Uses of bacteria, fungi, Algae, Protozoa
6.Method of food preservation
The organisms which are too small to be seen by the naked eyes & can be seen only through a microscope are called microorganisms.
Occurence Of Microbes
Microorganisms are present everywhere in air, soil, water, food stuffs, sewage, waste as well as inside of any living bodies. The maximum number of microbes are found in natural substrate which are rich in organic food, and have a suitable temperature and moisture for their growth and multiplication. An important fact about these microorganisms is that they are strong. They can survive extreme conditions of temperature and dryness by forming a cyst, which is a hard outer coat around their bodies.
Major Groups Of Microorganism
Microorganisms are present in the air, water, food and even inside our bodies. While a majority of the microbes are harmless, some of them have the capability of causing dangerous diseases.
Classification Of Microorganism
Microbes are mainly classified into five major groups :
Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are single-celled organisms that vary in shape and size. Some bacteria are round or oval (coccus), others are rod-shaped (bacillus) or spiral. Some bacteria are autotrophic as they contain chlorophyll, but most of them are heterotrophic, showing saprophytic or parasitic mode of nutrition.
• Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are single-celled organisms that vary in shape and size. Some bacteria are round or oval (coccus), others are rod-shaped (bacillus) or spiral. Some bacteria are autotrophic as they contain chlorophyll, but most of them are heterotrophic, showing saprophytic or parasitic mode of nutrition.
◊ Algae :
• Autotrophic organisms having undifferentiated plant bodies are called algae (singular: alga). Algae occur abundantly, like grass in aquatic habitats and are also called 'grass of water'.
◊ Fungi :
• Fungi (singular: fungus) are a group of plant-like organisms exhibiting heterophic (saprophytic or parasitic) nutrition. They are commonly found on bread, leather, cotton, paper, etc. Fungi grow vigorously in damp, warm, dark places, Yeast, moulds and mushrooms are forms of fungi. Yeast is commonly used for baking bread, cakes, etc. The yeast ferments sugar present in the wheat and converts it to carbon dioxide and alcohol.
◊ Protozoa :
• Unicellular organisms that exhibit animal-like characteristics are called protozoa (singular: protozoan). The word protozoan literally means 'the first animal'. Most protozoa are heterotrophic.
◊ Viruses :
• A virus is a microorganism which exhibits characteristics of living as well as non-living thing. Viruses exhibit a variety of shapes, having simple structure. Reproducing only inside a living organism, viruses can cause many diseases.
USES OF BACTERIA
◊ In Medicine :
(i) Antibiotics : Many well known antibiotics such as streptomycin, aureomycin and chloromycin are obtained from bacteria.
◊ In Agriculture :
(i) Decay of Organic Substances : Bacteria act on dead bodies of animals and plants and convert various complex organic compounds into simple inorganic substances. Thus, bacteria help in recycling of matter.
(ii) Nitrification : The protein confined in dead bodies of animals and plants is converted into ammonia by ammonifying bacteria. This process is known as ammonification. This ammonia is converted into nitrites by bacteria of the nitrosomonas group.
(iii) Nitrogen Fixation : Some of the soil bacteria like Azotobacter, Clostridium and symbiotic bacteria (Rhizobium found in root nodules of leguminous plants) are capable of fixing free atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates. This nitrates are used by green plants to produce proteins.
◊ In Industry :
(i) Lactobacillus bacteria help in the formation of milk products such as curd and cheese.
(ii) Some bacteria are also used in the preparation of industrial products such as lactic acid, acetone, alcohol etc.
→USES OF FUNGI
◊ In Medicine :
• Many well-known antibiotics are obtained from fungi. Penicillin is obtained from the fungus Penicillium notatum. Griseofulvin is extracted from the fungus Griseofulvum.
◊ In Industry :
(i) Brewery and Bakery : The wine (brewery) and bread (bakery) industries are the two most important industries which make use of the fungus yeast. Both these industries are based on fermentation activity of yeast.
Glucose Yeast→Alcohol + Carbon dioxide
(ii) Vitamins : Yeast is an important source of vitamin B-complex.
(iii) Preparation of Organic Acids :
Fermentation properties of several fungi are utilized for the manufacture of oxalic acid, citric acid, etc.
◊ In Agriculture :
• Fungi decompose the dead bodies of plants, animals and their waste products.
◊ As Food :
(i) Some species of fungi are edible. They are cooked like vegetables or used in pulao or prepared as soups. Some common edible fungi are Morchella, Agaricus, Ramaria, Clavaria and Plurotus.
(ii) Yeast is also used in the preparation of idli and dosa from a mixture of powdered rice and dal.
→USES OF ALGAE
Algae play an important role in medicine, agriculture, industry and as food.
◊ In Medicine :
• The green algae chlorella yield an important antibiotic called chlorellin.
(i) Algal Products : Agar and algin are obtained from red and brown algae respectively. These are used in the preparation of medicines, food and cosmetics.
(ii) Source of Iodine (I), Sodium (Na) and
Potassium (K) :
The brown algae are the most important sources of sodium, potassium and iodine. Iodine is obtained from an alga called kelp.
◊ In Agriculutre :
(i) As Manure : Many of the sea weeds are directly added to agricultural fields as manure because they are rich in nitrogen and potassium.
(ii) Nitrogen Fixation : Some blue-green algae like Nostoc and Anabaena are important in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in soils.
(iii) Food : The red alga Porphyra is used directly as food in China and Japan.
(iv) Fodder : Some sea weeds such as Laminaria are used as fodder for sheep and cattle.
→USES OF PROTOZOA
(i) Some free-living protozoa form an important link in an aquatic food chain. They feed on algae and are, in turn, eaten by bigger animals.
(ii) Some forms of protozoa help in the final degratdation of waste and sewage.
(iii) Protozoa are used as research material for various biological activities.
The disease causing microorganisms are called pathogens. It is necessary to protect ourselves from the different diseases caused by microorganism or germs. The commonest mode of entry for these germs is the food we eat and the water we drink. Some harmful microorganisms and the diseases caused are given in Table :
Disease carrying germs are carried by other organisms. For e.g. The pathogen for malaria is carried by a mosquito (the femal Anopheles, mosquito ) and enters the body when the mosquito bites. Here, the mosquito acts as a carried while the human is the host. Since mosquitoes are capable of carrying and spreading many diseases like malaria, dengue, etc. It is very important to control the reproduction or breeding of mosquitoes. Since mosquitoes
breed on water, we must ensure that there is no standing rain water or water in coolers, etc. near our homes.
→METHODS OF FOOD PRESERVATION
What do you do with left-over food after dinner ? It is kept in the fridge. If left outside, the food can get spoiled, and can cause food poisoning if eaten. We have seen how dangerous microorganisms can be. That is why it is very important for us to be careful about food quality and preservation. Different methods used to prevent spoilage of food, by limiting the growth of microbes are :
◊ Refrigeration :
• Food is kept at low temperature to reduce the rate of reproduction of the microorganisms and prevent food spoilage.
◊ Dehydration or drying :
• Food items are dried in the sun or by spraying or freezing. This process is commonly used for preserving fruits, although some nutrients are lost by drying.
◊ Addition of salt or sugar :
• Microbes need water for growth. By adding salt or sugar, water is made unavailable, thereby controlling microbial growth. Pickels and jams are preserved food items (fruits and vegetables) and can be kept for many months.
◊ Freezing :
• Frozen food is very popular nowadays as it has greater shelf life, without much loss of nutrients. Reduction in temperature and unavailability of water help to limit microbes.
◊ Smoking :
Meat products are preserved by the process of smoking which uses drying technique as well as some substances from smoke.
◊ Pasteurization and Homogenization :
• Pasteurization is a process by which microorganisms are destroyed by high temperature and sudden cooling. Milk is heated to around 70ºC and then suddenly cooled. It is commonly used for milk, since other food items can lose heat- sensitive nutrients.
• Homogenization is the process of passing a substance (usually milk) under high pressure through thin tubes, which reduces the tendency of creaming of fat.
◊ Canning :
• Canned products are first subjected to high heat processing, then sealed in cans. While canning increases shelf life.
◊ Sterilization :
• Ionizing radiations are used to destroy microorganisms without affecting heat-sensitive nutrients. This process is commonly used for preservation of mushrooms, strawberries, potatoes, etc.
The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into compounds of nitrogen, mainly nitrates, which can be easily used by plants is called nitrogen fixation. It can be fixed in two ways.
1. Natural fixation or Atmospheric fixation
2. Artificial fixation or Industrial fixation.
◊ Natural Fixation of Nitrogen :
• In nature nitrogen of the atmosphere can be fixed by three methods.
Fixation of Nitrogen by Bacteria :
• The root nodules of certain legnminous plants contain nitrogen fixing bacteria called Rhizobium. The bacteria can directly fix nitrogen gas to nitrogen compounds which can utilised by the plants.
◊ Fixation of Nitrogen by Blue - Green Alge :
• Blue-green algae like Nostoc and Anabaena can also help in nitrogen fixation. The fixation of nitrogen by bacteria and algae is called biological fixation of nitrogen.
Fixation of Nitrogen by Lighting :
• During lighting in the sky, when high temperature is produced, the nitrogen gas of the atmosphere reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen oxide. This nitrogen oxide dissolves in rainwater to form a very dilute solution of nitric acid. The nitric acid thus formed reacts with alkalis present in the soil to form nitrates which are then absorbed by the plants.
◊ Artificial Fixation of Nitrogen
• In this method the atmospheric nitrogen is made to combine with hydrogen gas to form ammonia (Haber's process). This ammonia can be oxidized to make nitrates or react with acid to form ammonium salts. The nitrates as well as
◊ Nitrogen Cycle :
• The circulation of nitrogen through the living and
non-living components of the biosphere (air, soil, water, plants and animals) is called nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen cycle maintain the percentage of nitrogen in the atomosphere more or less at a constant
◊ Steps Involved in Nitrogen Cycle :
• The atomspheric nitrogen is fixed into nitrogen compounds like nitrates by Rhizobium bacteria, blue-green algae, lightning or industrial method.
• The plants absorb nitrate compounds from the soil and water and convert them into plant proteins.
• The plants are eaten up by animals and thus plant protiens are used for making animal proteins.
• When the plants and animals die, bacteria and fungi present in the soil decompose the protiens of dead plants and animal into ammonia. This process is called ammonification.
• Ammonia thus formed is converted first into nitrites and then into nitrates by the action of Nitrosomonas and
Nitrobacter bacteria respectively. The process is called nitrification.
•The soil contians denirifying bacteria called Pseudomonas which convert nitrate form of nitrogen into free nitrogen which goes back into the atmosphere. The process is called denitrification.
Please click on below link to download pdf file for Class 8 Science Microorganisms Exam Notes.
|Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Microorganisms Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Materials Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Metals and Non Metals Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Coal and Petroleum Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Combustion and Flame Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Conservation of Plants and Animals Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Cell Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Reproduction Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Reaching at the Age of Adolescence Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Force and Pressure Chapter Notes|
|Class 8 Science Force and Pressure Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Sound Chapter Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Sound Solved Examples|
|Class 8 Science Sound Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Current Electricity and its Effects Chapter Notes|
|Class 8 Science Chemical Effects of Electric Current Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Some Natural Phenomena Chapter Notes|
|Class 8 Science Some Natural Phenomena Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Light Chapter Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Light Solved Examples|
|Class 8 Science Light Exam Notes|
|Class 8 Science Pollution of Air and Water Exam Notes|
|CBSE Class 8 Science Heat Chapter Notes|
More Study Material
CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe Study Material
We hope students liked the above Study Material for Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe designed as per the latest syllabus for Class 8 Science released by CBSE. Students of Class 8 should download the Study Material in Pdf format, read the notes and related questions and solutions given in above Class 8 Science Study Material on daily basis. All latest Study Material have been developed for Science by referring to the most important and regularly asked topics which the students should learn and practice to get better score in school tests and examinations. Studiestoday is the best portal for Class 8 students to get all latest study material free of cost.
Study Material for Science CBSE Class 8 Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
Expert teachers of studiestoday have referred to NCERT book for Class 8 Science to develop the Science Class 8 Study Material. If you download Study Material for the above chapter daily, you will get higher and better marks in Class 8 test and exams in the current year as you will be able to have stronger understanding of all concepts. Daily reading of Science study material will help students to have stronger understanding of all concepts and also make them expert on all critical topics. You can easily download and save all Study Material for Class 8 Science also from www.studiestoday.com without paying anything in Pdf format. After solving the questions given in the Study Material which have been developed as per latest course books also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 8 Science designed by our teachers
Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe Study Material Science CBSE Class 8
All Study Material given above for Class 8 Science have been made as per the latest syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. The students of Class 8 can refer to the answers which have been also provided by our teachers for all Study Material of Science so that you are able to solve the questions and then compare your answers with the solutions provided by us. We have also provided lot of MCQ questions for Class 8 Science so that you can solve questions relating to all topics given in each chapter. Also download Class 8 Science Sample Papers given on studiestoday.
Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe CBSE Class 8 Study Material Science
Regular Study Material reading helps to gain more comprehensive understanding of Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe concepts. Study Material play an important role in developing understanding of Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe in CBSE Class 8. Students can download and save or print all the Study Material, printable assignments, practice sheets of the above chapter in Class 8 Science in Pdf format from studiestoday. You can print or read them online on your computer or mobile or any other device. After solving these you should also refer to Class 8 Science MCQ Test for the same chapter
CBSE Study Material Science Class 8 Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
CBSE Class 8 Science best textbooks have been used for writing the problems given in the above Study Material. If you have tests coming up then you should revise all concepts relating to Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe and then take out print of the above Study Material and attempt all problems. We have also provided a lot of other Study Material for Class 8 Science which you can use to further make yourself better in Science.
You can download free study material for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe for latest academic session from StudiesToday.com
Yes, you can click on the link above and download PDFs for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe easily for regular use
Yes, the study material given here for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe is for current CBSE session
You, just click the link above and save Class 8 study material for Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe in Pdf
All study maetrial for CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe is free
www.studiestoday.com is the best portal for Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe Science Class 8 study material
Visit www.studiestoday.com for best study material for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
All study material for various topics of Class 8 Science Chapter 2 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe as per latest CBSE syllabus is avaiable here