CBSE Class 12 Psychology Psychological Disorders Worksheet Set A

Download printable Psychology Class 12 Worksheets in pdf format, CBSE Class 12 Psychology Psychological Disorders Worksheet Set A has been prepared as per the latest syllabus and exam pattern issued by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. Also download free pdf Psychology Class 12 Assignments and practice them daily to get better marks in tests and exams for Grade 12. Free chapter wise worksheets with answers have been designed by Standard 12 teachers as per latest examination pattern

Psychological Disorders Class 12 Psychology Worksheet Pdf

Class 12 Psychology students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for Psychological Disorders in Grade 12. This test paper with questions and solutions for Standard 12 Psychology will be very useful for tests and exams and help you to score better marks

Class 12 Psychology Worksheet for Psychological Disorders

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
 
Psychological disorders are
 
• Deviant – different, extreme, unusual
• Distressing – unpleasant or upsetting to the person and to others
• Dysfunctional – interfering with the person’s ability to carry out daily activities in a constructive way
• Dangerous (possibly) – to the person or others Various approaches have been used to distinguish between normal and abnormal behaviours.
• The first approach views abnormal behaviour as a deviation from social norms. Each society has norms, and behaviours, thoughts or emotions that break these norms are called abnormal.
• The second approach views abnormal behaviour as maladaptive. This approach holds that abnormal behaviour is defined by whether it fosters the well-being of the individual and eventually of the group to which he/she belongs. Well-being is not simply maintenance and survival but also includes growth and fulfillment. According to this criterion, conforming behavior can be seen as maladaptive if it interferes with optimal functioning and growth.
 
Historical approaches to psychological disorders:
 
Supernatural or Magical forces Approach – Exorcism (removing the evil that resides in the individual through counter magic and prayer) is still commonly used.
 
Biological or Organic Approach – In this approach, individuals behave strangely because their bodies and their brains are not functioning properly. In the modern era, there is evidence that body and brain processes have been linked to many types of maladaptive behaviour.
 
Psychological Approach – In this approach, psychological problems are caused by inadequacies in the way an individual thinks, feels or perceives the world.
 
Historical background of psychological disorder approaches:
 
• In ancient Greece, philosopher-physicians like Hippocrates, Socrates and Plate developed the organismic approach and viewed disturbed behaviour as a consequence of conflicts between emotion and reason.
 
• Galen elaborated on the role of the four humours in personal character and temperament. According to this, the material world was made up of four elements – earth, fire, air and water which combined to form four essential body fluids – blood,black bile, yellow bile and phlegm. Each of these was responsible for a different temperament, and imbalances in these humours were believed to cause psychological disorders.
• In the Middle Ages, Demonology related to a belief that people with mental problems were evil and there are numerous instances of witch hunts during this period. During the Middle Ages, the Christian spirit of charity prevailed and St. Augustine wrote extensively about feelings, mental anguish and conflict, which laid the groundwork for modern psychodynamic theories of abnormal behaviour.
 
• The Renaissance Period was marked by increased humanism and curiosity about behaviour. Johann Weyer emphasized psychological conflict and disturbed interpersonal relationships as causes of psychological disorders.
 
• The Age of Reason and Enlightenment (17th and 18th centuries) was when scientific method replaced faith and dogma as a way of understanding abnormal behavior. The growth of a scientific attitude towards psychological disorders in the 18th century contributed to the Reform Movement and to increased compassion for people who suffered from these disorders. One aspect of this movement was the new inclination for deinstitutionalization which placed emphasis on providing community care for mentally diseased individuals.
 
Classification of psychological disorders consists of a list of categories of specific
psychological disorders grouped into various classes on the basis of shared characteristics.The American Psychiatric Association has published an official manual of psychological disorders. The current version of it, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,evaluates the patient on five dimensions rather than on one broad aspect of mental disorder.The Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders is used in India and around the world and has been prepared by the WHO.
Biological factors influence all aspects of our behavior. Factors such as faulty genes,endocrine imbalances, malnutrition, etc. may be potential causes for abnormal behavior. According to this model, abnormal behavior has a biological or physiological basis.Researchers have found that psychological disorders are often related to problems in the transmission of messages from one neuron to another. Studies indicate that abnormal activity by certain neurotransmitters can lead to specific psychological disorders. Anxiety disorders have been linked to low activity of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), schizophrenia to excess activity of dopamine, and depression due to low activity of serotonin.Genetic factors have been studied by researchers in the case of psychological disorders. It appears that in most cases, no single gene is responsible for a particular behavior or a psychological disorder. In fact, many genes combine to help bring about our various behaviours and emotional reactions, both functional and dysfunctional.Psychological Models maintain that psychological and interpersonal factors have a significant role to play in abnormal behavior.
 
Psychodynamic model – It follows the view that behaviour, whether normal or abnormal, is determined by psychological forces within the person of which s/he is not consciously aware. These internal forces are considered dynamic (they interact with each other and their interaction gives shape to behavior, thoughts and emotions) and abnormal behavior is viewed as the results of conflicts between these forces. Freud stated that abnormal behaviour is a symbolic expression of unconscious mental conflicts that can be generally traced to early childhood and infancy.
 
Behavioural model – This model states that both normal and abnormal behaviours are learned and psychological disorders are the result of learning maladaptive ways of behaving. The model concentrates on behaviours that are learned through conditioning, and proposes that what can be learned can be unlearned. Learning takes place through classical conditioning (temporal association where two events repeatedly occur together in time), operant conditioning (behaviour is followed by a reward) and social learning (imitation).
 
Cognitive model – This model states that abnormal functioning can result from cognitive problems. People hold assumptions about themselves that are irrational, and think in illogical ways and make overgeneralisations.
 
Humanistic-Existential model – It focuses on the broader aspects of human existence.Existentialists believe that from birth we have total freedom to give meaning to our existence or to avoid that responsibility. Those who shirk from this responsibility would live empty, inauthentic and dysfunctional lives.
 
Socio-Cultural model – In this model, abnormal behaviour is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual. As behaviour is shaped by societal forces, factors such as family structure and communication, social networks, societal conditions and societal labels and roles become more important. Socio-cultural theorists believe that abnormal functioning is influenced by societal labels and roles assigned to troubled people. When people break the norms of their society, they are called deviant or mentally ill. Such labels tend to stick so that the person may be viewed as crazy and encouraged to act sick. The person gradually learns to accept and play the sick role, and functions in a disturbed manner.
 
• Diathesis-Stress model- This model states that psychological disorders develop when a diathesis (biological predisposition to the disorder) is set off by a stressful situation.
 
This model has three components.
 
1. The diathesis or presence of some biological aberration which may be inherited
 
2. The diathesis may carry a vulnerability to develop a psychological disorder
 
3. The presence of pathogenic stressors (factors that may lead to psychopathology)If such ‘at risk’ persons are exposed to these stressors, their predisposition may actually evolve into a disorder.Anxiety is usually defined as a diffuse, vague and very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. There are various types of anxiety disorders.
 
Generalised Anxiety Disorder – Prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object. It is marked by motor tension, as a result of which the person is unable to relax, and is visibly shaky or tense. The symptoms include worry and apprehensive feelings about the future, hyper vigilance which includes constantly scanning the environment for threats.
 
Panic Disorder – Recurrent anxiety attacks in which the person experiences intense terror. A panic attack denotes an abrupt surge of intense anxiety rising to a peak when thoughts of particular stimuli are present. The clinical features include shortness of breath, dizziness, trembling, palpitations, nausea, chest pain, discomfort, losing control or dying.
 
Phobias – Irrational fears related to specific objects, people or situations. Phobias often develop gradually or begin with a generalized anxiety disorder. Phobias can be grouped into three main types.
1. Specific phobias are irrational fears of a particular stimuli, and are the most common type of phobia.
2. Social phobias include intense and incapacitating fear and embarrassment when dealing with others.
3. Agoraphobia is a term used when people develop a fear of entering unfamiliar situations.


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