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FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERBS
Verbs can be divided into two categories
FINITE VERB NON FINITE VERBS
A verb which is limited by the number and person of its subject is called Finite Verb.
Example : a. They readthe Geeta
I amreading the Geeta.
He reads the Geeta.
A verb which is not limited by the number and person of its subject neither changes its form is called Non-Finite Verb.
Example : a. They like to readthe Geeta
Reading the Geeta I tried to explain it.
He likes reading the Geeta.
Non-finite verbs are of three kinds:
1) Gerund: The ‘-ing’ form of the verb which is used as a noun is called a gerund. It is also called the verbal noun.
Example:Painting is my hobby.
2) Infinitive The infinitive is the base form of the verb. It is often used with ‘to’
or without ‘to’. Infinitives with ‘to’ before them are called ‘to-infinitives’.
Example: David and I agreed to meet at 4 o’clock.
3) Participle: There are two kinds of participles:
Present Participles are formed by adding ‘-ing’ to the base verb.
Example: I have been reading.
Past participles are formed by adding -d, -ed, -en, -t or -n to the base verb.
Example: I have worked.
A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing.
Gerunds are considered as non-finite verbs. That means they cannot form a clause.
Although gerunds are formed from verbs, they are used as nouns. In other words, by adding –ing to a verb, you can change it into a noun.
Act (verb) -> acting (noun)
Play (verb) -> playing (noun)
Gerunds after prepositions
A gerund can also be used as the object of a preposition. That means whenever a verb follows a preposition, use the –ing form.
Eg: She is interested in learning classical music.
Here the gerund ‘learning’ acts as the object of the preposition ‘in’.
Gerunds after verbs
Some verbs are also followed by gerunds. Common examples of these verbs are: admit, advise, avoid, consider, deny, delay, discuss, enjoy, finish, keep, recommend, postpone, regret, risk, suggest, tolerate.
She denied stealing the money.
He admitted being jealous of his brother.
To form negatives, we put ‘not’ before the gerund.
I regret not listening to my doctor. ( I didn’t listen to my doctor and now I regret it.)
Fill in the blanks with infinitive/ gerund:
______________ ( ask) questions is easier than answering them.
______________ ( respect) our parents is our duty.
He is fond of ______________ ( play) cricket.
Many men desire ______________ ( make) money quickly.
The ability ______________ (laugh) is peculiar to mankind.
I am sorry _______________ (hear) this.
The old man was tired of ________________ (walk).
The boys are anxious _____________ ( learn).
__________________ ( hunt) deer is not allowed in this country.
It is delightful _______________ (hear ) the sound of the sea.
He is determined __________________(win) that race.
I have come ________________ (see) you.
He has ruined his sight by __________________ ( read) small print.
I was surprised at Raj’s ___________________ (be) absent.
I am determined to increase my knowledge by ______________ (study) consistently.
He is a man ______________________ (be) admired.
______________________ ( praise) all alike is praising none.
Her fear of spiders made ______________________ (travel) difficult for her.
__________________ (walk) on the grass is forbidden.
I cannot go on ___________________ (do) nothing.
Combine the following sentences using participles:
He hurt his foot. He stopped.
The thief had been in prison before. He received severe sentences.
He was unwilling to go any further. He returned home.
He lost a large sum of money. He gave up speculation.
I received no answer. I knocked a second time.
A crow stole a piece of cheese. She flew to her nest to enjoy the tasty meal.
A passenger alighted from a train. He fell over a bag on the platform.
The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat.
He was overpowered. He surrendered.
He raised his gun. He took aim. He shot the tiger.
I have told you the facts. I have nothing more to say. I will sit down.
He ran at top speed. He got out of breath.