CBSE Class 8 English Grammar Conditional Clauses Using If

GRAMMAR

7. Conditional Clauses Using  ‘If’

Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as "the unreal past" because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past. There are five main ways of constructing conditional sentences in English. In all cases, these sentences are made up of an if clause and a main clause. In many negative conditional sentences, there is an equivalent sentence construction using "unless" instead of "if".

Conditional sentence type

Usage

If clause verb tense

Main clause verb tense

Zero

General truths

Simple present

Simple present

Type 1

A possible condition and its probable result

Simple present

Simple future

Type 2

A hypothetical condition and its probable result

Simple past

Present conditional or Present continuous conditional

Type 3

An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past

Past perfect

Perfect conditional

Mixed type

An unreal past condition and its probable result in the present

Past perfect

Present conditional

 

THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word "if" can usually be replaced by the word "when" without changing the meaning.

If clause

Main clause

If + simple present

simple present

If this thing happens

that thing happens.

If you heat ice

it melts.

If it rains

the grass gets wet.

 

TYPE 1 CONDITIONAL

The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.

If clause

Main clause

If + simple present

simple future

If this thing happens

that thing will happen.

If you don't hurry

you will miss the train.

If it rains today

you will get wet.

 

TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL

The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause

Main clause

If + simple past

present conditional or present continuous conditional

If this thing happened

that thing would happen. that thing would be happening.

If you went to bed earlier

you would not be so tired.

If it rained

you would get wet.

If I spoke Italian

I would be working in Italy.

 

TYPE 3 CONDITIONAL

The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

If clause

Main clause

If + past perfect

perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional

If this thing had happened

that thing would have happened.  OR that thing would have been happening.

If you had studied harder

you would have passed the exam.

If it had rained

you would have gotten wet.

If I had accepted that promotion

I would have been working in Milan.

 

EXERCISE-1

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES USING IF-1

 

Fill in the blanks with appropriate if clause. Use the type given at the end of the sentence.

 

1. If ________________________ he would have lost his job  (T3)

2. The teacher will scold him if ________________________  (T1)

3. What will happen if________________________? (T1)

4. I would be angry (be) if________________________. (T2)

5. If ________________________, we would have gone without him. (T3)

6. If________________________, will you give it back to me? (T1)

7. If________________________, I will bring you another one. (T1)

8. If________________________, I would have visited  you. (T3)

9. I would not drink that wine if________________________. (T2)

10. If ________________________  ,our crops would have grown faster (T3)

11. If ________________________ ,the room will be much brighter (T1).

12. I would have been able to repair the roof myself if________________________. (T3)

13. You would not have  so many accidents if _______________________ (T2).

15. If ________________________, where will you stay? (T1)

 

EXERCISE-2

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES USING IF-2

if-clauses, type I
Complete the sentences.

  1. If­­­­_____________________, we will stay at home.
  2. If_____________________, I will pick you up.
  3. My mum will bake a cake if_____________________.

if-clauses, type II
Complete the sentences.

  1. If_____________________, you would get better marks in your tests.
  2. If_____________________, I would travel around the world.
  3. She would come to the market with us _____________________.

if-clauses, type III
Complete the sentences.

  1. If_____________________, we would have finished the work in next to no time.
  2. I would have called you earlier_____________________.
  3. They would not have gone to the theatre by car if_____________________.

if-clauses, mixed

Complete the sentences.

  1. If_____________________, I would give it to you.
  2. If_____________________, he would have run the marathon.
  3. If_____________________, you will need a raincoat.
  4. We would not have missed the train if_____________________.
  5. If_____________________, the kids would play outside all day long.
  6. If_____________________, they wouldn’t have got a stomach ache.
  7. I will not be able to write you if_____________________.

III. Complete the following sentences using appropriate ‘if clause’:

  1. The plants will die  ___________________________.
  2. ______________________________, you would easily get a job.
  3. I would not have helped him , ___________________________.
  4. _________________________________ I would not have understood the poem.
  5. _______________________________, the accident would not have taken place.
  6. We shall have a bumper crop ________________________________.
  7. I will be surprised  __________________________________________.
  8. You might miss the train, ____________________________________.
  9. ___________________________________, you could do it.
  10. I could not have bought the car ______________________________.
  11. __________________________________ she could have won the match.
  12. ________________________________- he might have survived.

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