NCERT Book for Class 12 Political Science Contemporary World Politics Chapter 6 International Organisations
Class 12 Political Science students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Contemporary World Politics Chapter 6 International Organisations in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Political Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Contemporary World Politics Chapter 6 International Organisations NCERT Book Class 12
WHY INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS?
Read the two cartoons on this page. Both the cartoons comment on the ineffectiveness of the United Nations Organisation, usually referred to as the UN, in the Lebanon crisis in 2006. Both the cartoons represent the kind of opinions that we often hear about the UN. On the other hand, we also find that the UN is generally regarded as the most importan international organisation in today’s world. In the eyes of many people all over the world, it is indispensable and represents the great hope of humanity for peace and progress. Why do we then need organisations like the UN? Let us hear two insiders: “The United Nations was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell.” — Dag Hammarskjold, the UN’s second Secretary-General. “Talking shop? Yes, there are a lot of speeches and meetings at the U.N., especially during the annual sessions of the General Assembly. But as Churchill put it, jaw-jaw is better than war-war. Isn’t it better to have one place where all… countries in the world can get together, bore each other sometimes with their words rather than bore holes into each other on the battlefield?” — Shashi Tharoor, the former UN Under-Secretary- General for Communications and Public Information.
These two quotes suggest something important. International organisations are not the answer to everything, but they are important. International organisations help with matters of war and peace. They also help countries cooperate to make better living conditions for us all. Countries have conflicts and differences with each other. That does not necessarily mean they must go to war to deal with their antagonisms. They can, instead, discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions; indeed, even though this is rarely noticed, most conflicts and differences are resolved without going to war. The role of an international organisation can be important in this context. An international organisation is not a super-state with authority over its members. It is created by and responds to states. It comes into being when states agree to its creation. Once created, it can help member states resolve their problems peacefully. International organisations are helpful in another way.
Nations can usually see that there are some things they must do together. There are issues that are so challenging that they can only be dealt with when everyone works together. Disease is an example. Some diseases can only be eradicated if everyone in the world cooperates in inoculating or vaccinating their populations. Or take global warming and its effects. As atmospheric temperatures rise because of the spread of certain chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), there is a danger that sea levels will also rise, thereby submerging many coastal areas of the world including huge cities. Of course, each country can try to find its own solution to the effects of global warming. But in the end a more effective approach is to stop the warming itself. This requires at least all of the major industrial powers to cooperate.
EVOLUTION OF THE UN
The First World War encouraged the world to invest in an international organisation to deal with conflict. Many believed that such an organisation would help the world to avoid war. As a result, the League of Nations was born. However, despite its initial success, it could not prevent the Second World War (1939-45). Many more people died and were wounded in this war than ever before.
1. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements below about the veto power.
a. Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
b. It’s a kind of negative power.
c. The Secretary-General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
d. One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.
2. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements below that describe the way the UN functions.
a. All security and peace related issues are dealt with in the Security Council.
b. Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
c. Having consensus among the five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
d. The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.
3. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?
a. Nuclear capability
b. It has been a member of the UN since its inception
c. It is located in Asia
d. India’s growing economic power and stable political system
4. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:
a. The UN Committee on Disarmament
b. International Atomic Energy Agency
c. UN International Safeguard Committee
d. None of the above
5. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations
a. General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
b. General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
c. World Health Organisation
d. UN Development Programme
6. Fill in the blanks.
a. The prime objective of the UN is ___________________________
b. The highest functionary of the UN is called_________________
c. The UN Security Council has _____ permanent and _____nonpermanent members.
d. ______________________ is the present UN Secretary-General.
7. Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:
1. Economic and Social Council
2. International Court of Justice
3. International Atomic Energy Agency
4. Security Council
5. UN High Commission for Refugees
6. World Trade Organisation
7. International Monetary Fund
8. General Assembly
9. World Health Organisation
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Political Science International Organisations
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