NCERT Book for Class 12 Political Science Contemporary World Politics Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia
Class 12 Political Science students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Contemporary World Politics Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Political Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Contemporary World Politics Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia NCERT Book Class 12
Contemporary South Asia
WHAT IS SOUTH ASIA?
We are all familiar with the gripping tension during an India- Pakistan cricket match. We have also seen the goodwill and hospitality shown to visiting Indian and Pakistani fans by their hosts when they come to watch a cricket match. This is symbolic of the larger pattern of South Asian affairs. Ours is a region where rivalry and goodwill, hope and despair, mutual suspicion and trust coexist.
Let us begin by asking an elementary question: what is South Asia? The expression ‘South Asia’ usually includes the following countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The mighty Himalayas in the north and the vast Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the south, west and east respectively provide a natural insularity to the region, which is largely responsible for the linguistic, social and cultural distinctiveness of the subcontinent. The boundaries of the region are not as clear in the east and the west, as they are in the north and the south. Afghanistan and Myanmar are often included in discussions of the region as a whole. China is an important player but is not considered to be a part of the region. In this chapter, we shall use South Asia to mean the seven countries mentioned above. Thus defined, South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and yet constitutes one geo-political space. The various countries in South Asia do not have the same kind of political systems. Despite many problems and limitations, Sri Lanka and India have successfully operated a democratic system since their independence from the British. You will study more about the evolution of democracy inIndia in the textbook that deals with politics in India since independence. It is, of course, possible to point out many limitations of India’s democracy; but we have to remember the fact that India has remained a democracy throughout its existence as an independent country. The same is true of Sri Lanka.
Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both civilian an military rulers, with Bangladeshremaining a democracy in the post-Cold War period. Pakistan began the post-Cold War period with successive democratic governments under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively. But it suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime since then. Till 2006, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy with the danger of the king taking over executive powers. In 2006 a successful popular uprising led to the restoration of democracy and reduced the king to a nominal position. From the experience of Bangladesh and Nepal, we can say that democracy is becoming an accepted norm in the entire region of South Asia.
Similar changes are taking place in the two smallest countries of the region. Bhutan is still a monarchy but the king has initiated plans for its transition to multi-party democracy. The Maldives, the other island nation, was a Sultanate till 1968 when it was transformed into a republic with a presidential form of government. In June 2005, the parliament of the Maldives voted unanimously to introduce a multi-party system. The Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) dominates the political affairs of the island. Democracy strengthened in the Maldives after the 2005 elections when some opposition parties were legalised.
Despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all these countries share the aspiration for democracy. A recent survey ofthe attitudes of the people in the five big countries of the region showed that there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries. Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy. They prefer democracy over any other form of democracy and think that democracy is suitable for their country. These are significant findings, for it was earlier believed that democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
1. Identify the country:
a. The struggle among pro-monarchy, pro-democracy groups and extremists created an atmosphere of political instability:
b. A landlocked country with multi-party competition:
c. The first country to liberalise its economy in the South Asian region:
d. In the conflict between the military and pro-democracy groups, the military has prevailed over democracy:
e. Centrally located and shares borders with most of the South Asian countries:
f. Earlier the island had the Sultan as the head of state. Now, it’s a republic:
g. Small savings and credit cooperatives in the rural areas have helped in reducing poverty:
h. A landlocked country with a monarchy:
2. Which among the following statements about South Asia is wrong?
a) All the countries in South Asia are democratic.
b) Bangladesh and India have signed an agreement on river-water sharing.
c) SAFTA was signed at the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad.
d) The US and China play an influential role in South Asian politics.
3. What are some of the commonalities and differences between Bangladesh and Pakistan in their democratic experiences?
4. List three challenges to democracy in Nepal.
5. Name the principal players in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. How do you assess the prospects of the resolution of this conflict?
6. Mention some of the recent agreements between India and Pakistan. Can we be sure that the two countries are well on their way to a friendly relationship?
7. Mention two areas each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh?
8. How are the external powers influencing bilateral relations in South Asia? Take any one example to illustrate your point.
9. Write a short note on the role and the limitations of SAARC as a forum for facilitating economic cooperation among the South Asian countries.
10. India’s neighbours often think that the Indian government tries to dominate and interfere in the domestic affairs of the smaller countries of the region. Is this a correct impression?
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Political Science Contemporary South Asia
Books recommended by teachers
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The Cold War Era|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The End of Bipolarity|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science US Hegemony in World Politics|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Alternative Centres of Power|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Contemporary South Asia|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science International Organisations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Security in the Contemporary World|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Environment and Natural Resources|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Globalisation|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Challenges of Nation Building|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Era of One Party Dominance|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Politics of Planned Development|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Indias External Relations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Challenges to and Restoration of The Congress System|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The Crisis of Democratic Order|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Rise of Popular Movements|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Regional Aspirations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Recent Developments in Indian Politics|