NCERT Book for Class 12 Political Science Contemporary World Politics Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World
Class 12 Political Science students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Contemporary World Politics Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Political Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Contemporary World Politics Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World NCERT Book Class 12
Security in the Contemporary World
WHAT IS SECURITY?
At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the life of a country are full of threats. Does that mean that every single threat counts as a security threat? Every time a person steps out of his or her house, there is some degree of threat to their existence and way of life. Our world would be saturated with security issues if we took such a broad view of what is threatening.
Those who study security, therefore, generally say that only those things that threaten ‘core values’ should be regarded as being of interest in discussions of security. Whose core values though? The core values of the country as a whole? The core values of ordinary women and men in the street? Do governments, on behalf of citizens, always have the same notion of core values as the ordinary citizen?
Furthermore, when we speak of threats to core values, how intense should the threats be? Surely there are big and small threats to virtually every value we hold dear. Can all those threats be brought into the understanding of security? Every time another country does something or fails to do something, this may damage the core values of one’s country. Every time a person is robbed in the streets, the security of ordinary people as they live their daily lives is harmed. Yet, we would be paralysed if we took such an extensive view of security: everywhere we looked, the world would be full of dangers.
So we are brought to a conclusion: security relates only to extremely dangerous threats— threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
TRADITIONAL NOTIONS: EXTERNAL
Most of the time, when we read and hear about security we are talking about traditional, national security conceptions of security. In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats. The source of this danger is another country which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Military action also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens. It is unlikely that in a war only soldiers will be hurt or killed. Quite often, ordinary men and women are made targets of war, to break their support of the war. In responding to the threat of war, a government has three basic choices: to surrender; to prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level; and to defend itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back or defeat the attacking forces altogether. Governments may choose to surrender when actually confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of the country. Therefore, security policy is concerned with preventing war, which is called deterrence, and with limiting or ending war, which is called defence. Traditional security policy has a third component called balance of power. When countries look around them, they see that some countries are bigger and stronger. This is a clue to who might be a threat in the future. For instance, a neighbouring country may not say it is preparing for attack. There may be no obvious reason for attack. But the fact that this country is very powerful is a sign formalised in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the threat. Countries form alliances to increase their effective power relative to another country or alliance. Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change. For example, the US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in the 1980s, but later attacked them when Al Qaeda—a group of Islamic militants led by Osama bin Laden—launched terrorist strikes against America on 11 September 2001.
1. Match the terms with their meaning:
i. Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
ii. Arms Control
a. Giving up certain types of weapons
b. A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis
c. A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks
d. Regulates the acquisition or development of weapons
2. Which among the following would you consider as a traditional security concern / non-traditional security concern / not a threat?
a. The spread of chikungunya / dengue fever
b. Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation
c. Emergence of a group demanding nationhood for their region
d. Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region
e. A newspaper that is critical of the armed forces in the country
3. What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliances belong to?
4. What are the differences in the threats that people in the Third World face and those living in the First World face?
5. Is terrorism a traditional or non-traditional threat to security?
6. What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to the traditional security perspective?
7. What is ‘Balance of Power’? How could a state achieve this?
8. What are the objectives of military alliances? Give an example of a functioning military alliance with its specific objectives.
9. Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Political Science Security in the Contemporary World
Books recommended by teachers
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The Cold War Era|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The End of Bipolarity|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science US Hegemony in World Politics|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Alternative Centres of Power|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Contemporary South Asia|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science International Organisations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Security in the Contemporary World|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Environment and Natural Resources|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Globalisation|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Challenges of Nation Building|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Era of One Party Dominance|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Politics of Planned Development|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Indias External Relations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Challenges to and Restoration of The Congress System|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science The Crisis of Democratic Order|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Rise of Popular Movements|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Regional Aspirations|
|NCERT Class 12 Political Science Recent Developments in Indian Politics|