NCERT Book for Class 12 Political Science Contemporary World Politics Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power
Class 12 Political Science students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Contemporary World Politics Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Political Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Contemporary World Politics Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power NCERT Book Class 12
Alternative Centres of Power
As the Second World War came to an end, many of Europe’s leaders grappled with the ‘Question of Europe’. Should Europe be allowed to revert to its old rivalries or be reconstructed on principles and institutions that would contribute to a positive conception of international relations? The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. In 1945, theEuropean states confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of the assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded.
European integration after 1945 was aided by the Cold War. America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under what was called the ‘Marshall Plan’. The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO. Under the Marshall Plan, the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948 to channel aid to the west European states. It became a forum where the western European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues. The Council o Europe, established in 1949, was another step forward in political cooperation. The process of economic integration of European capitalist countries proceeded step by step (se Timeline of European Integration) leading to the formation of the European Economic Community in 1957. This process acquired a political dimension with the creat ion of the European Parliament. The collapse of the Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992. The foundation was thus laid for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs, and the creation of a single currency.
The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The EU has started to act more as a nation state. While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed, it has its own flag, anthem, founding date, and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc. The process has not proved easy, for people in many countries are not very enthusiastic in giving the EU powers that were exercised by the government of their country. There are also reservations about including some new countries within the EU.
The EU has economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence. The EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the United States. Its currency, the euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China. Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international.
1. Arrange the following in chronological order.
a. China’s accession to WTO b. Establishment of the EEC
c. Establishment of the EU d. Birth of ARF
2. The ‘ASEAN Way’
a. Reflects the life style of ASEAN members
b. A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative
c. The defence policy followed by the ASEAN members
d. The road that connects all the ASEAN members
3. Who among the following adopted an ‘open door’ policy?
a. China b. EU c. Japan d. USA
4. Fill in the blanks:
a. The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over ______________ and __________________ region.
b. ARF was established in the year ______________________ .
c. China entered into bilateral relations with __________ (a major country) in 1972.
d. ____________ Plan influenced the establishment of the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
e. ___________ is the organisation of ASEAN that deals with security.
5. What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations?
6. How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?
7. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?
8. Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community.
9. In what ways does the present Chinese economy differs from its command economy?
10. How did the European countries resolve their post-Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.
11. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?
12. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
13. The Peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.
14. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Political Science Alternative Centres of Power
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