CBSE Class 12 Business Studies HOTs Financial Management Set C

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies HOTs - Financial Management. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) download and print



Q. 1 Write the full form of the terms :-
a) EBIT b) ROI (1)
Q.2 State which type of capital structure (more equity based or debt based) would a company adopt when.
a) The stock market is bullish b) The stock market is bearish. (1)
Q.3 Seema is a manufacture who deals in bakery products. Reena also a manufacturer deals in stainless steel ware. Based on length of operating cycle state who would require more working capital? (1)
Q.4 State the foremost objective of financial management. (1)
Q.5 “Ploughing back of profits holds the key to success of a business enterprises”. Do you agree. Give two reasons.
Q.6 Give reasons why fixed capital requirement of the electronic and computer industry are different from those of furniture industry.
Q.7 A decision in financial management is basically concerned about now much to raise and from which source.
Name the type of decision. Also explain two vital factors to be kept in mind while taking such decisions. (3)
Q.8 You are the finance manager of DO WELL INDUSTRIES LTD.. The firm has earned a profit of 100 crores. Management wants to retain the profit fully in the business without paying any dividend Advise the management on the negative impact of doing so. (Any two reasons). (3)
Q.9 Name the activity which essentially involves “preparation” of financial blue of an enterprise’s future operations. “Also state any two advantages of this activity. (3)
Q.10 Explain giving reasons why firms with :- (4)
a) High debtors turnover ratio and
b) High inventory turnover ratio require lesser amount of working capital.
Q.11 Explain with the suitable example how ‘lead time’ affects working capital requirements of a business? (4)
Q.12 Apollo Ltd, has earned a profit which is very high,. However the firm faces a short term liquidity crunch .Explain how it will affect the dividend decision which are to be taken. (4)
Q.13 What are the condition that a company must consider before it tardes on equity? (4)
Q.14 “Capital budgeting decisions can make or break a firms fortunes? Do you agree. Give reasons why? (four reasons) (5)
Q.15 Swaja, the finance manager of OPTIMA LTD. A firm dealing in telecommunication equipment chose a capital structure which was Lighly geared :-
i) What do you understand by a highly geared capital structure?
ii) What are the implications of choosing such a structure? (5)
Q.16 Rama Enterprises a small business concern wants to expand its capital base. However the firm faces a major threat of takeover by a bigger concern in the same line of operations. (5)
a) Advice the firm on what type of capital it should raise?
b) Give reasons also.
Q.17 i) What is interest coverage ratio? (6)
ii) How does it affect capital structure?
iii) Illustrate effect of interest coverage ratio on capital structure with a suitable example.
Q.18 State whether the following require huge or low fixed capital give reason also
i) The manufacturing concern. (6)
ii) The cottage/small scale industry.
iii) A petrochemical Co. which is going to diversify operations and enter the textile business also .
Q.19 Inflation has affected working capital requirement of all firms”. (6)
a) What do you think is impact of inflation on working capital?
b) Give reasons for your answer.
c) Also explain how credit allowed and credit availed affects working capital requirements of a business.
Q.20 Comment on the fixed capital requirement of the following industries giving suitable reasons :- (6)
a) A construction firm? Which has provisions to tease earthmoving equipment and bulldozers.
b) A electronic goods manufacture who has entered into a collaboration with a giant firm in South East Asia.


Ans.1 EBIT refers to earnings before interest & taxes. ROI refers to return on investment. (½x2=1)
Ans.2 a) When the stock market is bullish equity based capital structure can be easily raised .
b) When the stock market is bearish a company must go in for more of loans or debt in its capital structure. (½x2=1)
Ans.3 The length of operating cycle of Reena’s firm stainless steel ware is longer i.e. The conversion time for raw material to stainless steel product may require more time in case of Reena’s firms. Hence Reena would require more
working capital as compared to Seema. (1)
Ans.4 The foremost objective of financial management is “maximization of share holder’s wealth. (1)
Ans.5 Yes, agree. (1) This is because (i) the company need not raise finance from other sources hence cost of financing of the Co. is kept at minimum.
ii) When retained earnings are ploughed back business this greatly enhances  prestige of Co. in the eyes of shareholder and the general public. (1)
Ans.6 Electronic & computer industry are industries which require constant technological up gradation . The assets in such industries become obsolete very quickly and require constant replacement hence they require greates fixed capital investment. Furniture industry does not face danger of technological upgradation and hence they require less investment in fixed assets. (1½x2=3)
An.7 The types decision is financing decision. Two vital factors to be kept in mind white taking such decision are :- (1+1=2)
• The cost of raising such funds.
• Risk associated with deferent course – debt capital are generally considered more riskily.
Ans.8 Negative impact of not paying dividend to share holder despite earning good profits.
• It may adversely affect the share prices, stock market reacts adversely to non payment of dividend.
• Chase holder will feel dissatisfied and this may lead to heavy seeling of shares which would in turn affect reputation of the firm. (1½x2=3)
Ans.9 The activity which involves preparation of financial blue print of an enterprises future operation is financial planning Advantages :-
• It ensures availability of funds to a firm whenever it requires it.
• To ensure that the firm does not raise resources unnecessarily or waste financial resources. (1+1=2)
Ans. 10 a) High debtors turnover ratio signifies firm’s efficiency in realizing value of credit sales from debtors . Therefore such firms need relatively less amount of working capital.
b) High inventory resources ratio also indicates operational efficiency e.i. the firm’s stock is quickly converted into sales. Hence these firms also require less investment in working capital. (2x2=4)
Ans.11 Lead time refers to the time lag between placing an order and obtaining delivery of raw materials. Firms which have longer lead time therefore require maintenance of high levels of stock and therefore more investments in working capital. For example :-
Firm x dealing in tyre and tube has a lead time of one week and firm y dealing in computer spare parts has a lead time of three weeks. Firm would need to maintain more inventory and therefore require more working capital. (2+2=4)
Ans.12 Dividend decision are taken on the basis of several factors most important of which is cash flow position of a company. Company’s which face liquidity Creech or shortage of cash generally do not declare high percentage of
dividend as it involves hige outflow of cash as payment of dividend to share holders. (4)
Ans.13 Trading on equity involves usage of highel percentage of debt in capitalstructure to ensure better return to equity share holders. The two conditions to be kept mind while trading on equity are :-
i) Rate of return must be greater that interest payable on fixed interest securities.
ii) Interest must be tax deductible. (2+2=4)
Ans.14 Yes,
i) Huge amount of funds are involved.
ii) Such decisions have long term implication.
They are irreversible decisions.
There are associated cause with capital budgeting decisions (1+1=2)
Ans.15 i) A highly geared capital structure is one in which mole debt is employed to ensure return to equity share holders. Implications of such a structure are
• EPS will increase
• But the higative impact is that as more debt is used it is more risky for the business enterprise.
Ans.16 a) Firm should choose a capital structure which is more based on debt.
b) As the firm faces threat of takeover equity Bhares are totally unsuitable as they will dilute the owner’s inter in the business. Further where equity shares are issued the bigger concern right purchase its share and acquire greater stake in the business and ultimately take over the enterprise. (4)
Ans.17 i) Interest coverage ratio refers to no. of times EBIT covers interest obligation of a business. Formula for calculation is EBIT Interest
ii) Interest coverage ratio determines the maximum amount the company can raise by way of debt keeping the mind the return on investment and interest obligations to be met .
iii) lllustration of interest coverage ratio – If a company has EBIT at RS 10,00,000. If Co. had issued 10% debentures of Rs. 50,00,000. The interest coverage ratio is 10 00 000 /  50 000 = 20 times
The Co. is at a lower risk of failing to meet its interest obligation as compared to a Co. with a lower interest coverage ratio. (2x3=6)
Ans.18 I) Manufacturing concern converse requires higher investment in fixed assets and therefore requires more working capital.
ii) Cottage/small scale industries are generally labour intensive. So their fix capital requirement are not very high.
iii) A petro chemical Co. diversify in activities into textile sector requires high initial investment for purchase of fixed assets for purpose of manufacture of textiles. (2+2+2=6)
Ans.19i) When there is inflation in the economy more working capital is required.
ii) This is because under inflationary conditions cost of raw materials, labour inputs etc. Also increase leading to higher requirements of working capital.
iii) When credit is allowed by a firm it needs to maintain higher working capital as sometime is required before credit sales are realized from. Credit availed help a firm to operate with less working capital as credit purchases of raw
material, spare parts etc. can be made. (2+2+2=6)
Ans.20 a) Construction firm with provisions for leasing need not invest heavily in fixed capital as these assets which involve huge cost can be leased or hired based on need.
b) The electronic goods manufactures who entered in collaboration of South West Asia also requires lesser fixed capital as this joint venture enables pooling of resoures such as machinery equipment and therefore and also joint investment for purchase of certain fixed assets hence there fixed capital need tends to be lower.

Q1. When is the dividend decision treated as a residual decision ? 1
Q2. What is ‘stock dividend’ ? How does it affect a company ? 1
Q3. When is a capital structure said to be optimum ? 1
Q4. State the concept of financial leverage ? How is it computed ? 1
Q5. Explain the term financial risk. 1
Q6. Define business finance. 1
Q7. Give the full form of 1
Q8. When an asset said to be more liquid ? 1
Q9. To avoid the problem of shortage and surplus of funds what is required in financial management ? Name the concept involved. 1
Q10. Depict the effect of a higher debtor turnover ratio on working capital needs of a firm. 1
Q11. Distinguish between fixed and working capital. 3
Q12. What are the three possible situations of capitalisation ? 3
Q13. Capital structure and capitalisation way consist of the same components and yet they may differ”. Explain briefly. 3
Q14. Explain any four factors which affect the capital structure of a business enterprises. 4
Q15. What are capital budgeting decisions ? Explain factors affecting such decisions. 4
Q16. State and explain whether the following have small or large working capital requirements.
(i) A firm trading in biscuits
(ii) A manufacturer of steel pipes
(iii) A firm selling ice-creams.
(iv) A firm following a liberal credit policy. 5
Explain why management of fixed capital is considered critical to an enterprises success.
Q17. Explain how the following affect capital structure
(a) Stock market conditions
(b) cost of debt. 5
Q18. Clearly state the role of a financial manager in a business. 6
Q19. Explain any five factors affecting financing decisions. 6
Q20. (a) Which decision determines the amount of profit to be retained in the business ? Explain any two factors affected this decision.
(b) Name the other two important decision taken by a financial manager. 6
Answer to Question Bank

Very Short Question.

Ans1. To finance investment projects the firm has two alternatives either to raise external equity or to internally finance from the retained earnings available. thus, the company will pay dividends only when it cannot profitably invest the
earnings. In this case, the dividend is treated as a residual or passive decision. 1
Ans2. When a co. instead of paying dividend in cash issues shares to its shareholders it is known as bonus shares or stock dividend. The effect of issuing bonus shares is that it increases the capital base of the Co.   1
Ans.3 A capital structure is said to be optimum when the proportion of debt and equity is such that it results in an increase in the value of the shares. 1
Ans.4 The proportion of the debt in the overall capital is called financial leverage. It is computed as debt /debt+equity. 1
Ans.5 Financial risk is risk which arises due to inability of a firm to meet its fixed financial commitments, for eg. interest on debentures. 1
Ans.6 Business Finance refers to money required to carry out activities pertaining to business. 1
Ans.7 ROI – Return on Investment.
ICR – Interest Coverage Ratio ½+½=1
Ans.8 An asset is more liquid when it can be converted into cash quickly and without any reduction in its value. 1
Ans.9 To avoid the problem of storage and surplus of funds financial planning is required in management. 1
Ans.10 A high debtor turnover ratio indicates faster realization of cash receivables. It will be reduce the working capital requirement of a firm. 1
Ans.11 Fixed Capital :
i) Capital invested in fixed assets such as building, machinery etc.
ii) Fixed assets have a long life and are not meant for resale.
iii) Basic objective is to provide infrastructure or production capacity for the manufacture of furnished goods.
Working capital :

i) It is invested in floating assets i.e. stock debtors.
ii) Floating assets are for short term and these can be converted into cash quickly.
iii) It’s aim is to meet day to day expenses of production process. 3
Ans.12 Three possible situations of capitalization are : Fair and normal Capitalisation – Business employs correct amount of capital.
Once Capitalistaion – Business employs more capital than warranted.
Under Capitalisattion – Business employs less capital than warranted.
Ans.13 Capitalisation is a quantitative aspect of financial planning of an enterprise, while capital structure is concerned with qualitative aspect. Capitalisation refers to total amount of securities issued by a company while capital structure refers to the kind of securities and their compositions in total funds raised by a Co. 3
Ans. 14 The capital structure of a company refers to the composition of its long term funds. The following factors effect the capital structure of a company –
I) Position of cash Flow :- The decision relating to composition of capital structure depends upon the ability of the business to generate enough cash flow. Funds are required to meet its day to day requirements. long term investments & to pay fixed commitments.
II) Return on investment (ROI) :- It refers to the earnings expected from the investment. If ROI is high a Co. can opt for trading on equity to increase the earning per share. Thus, it is an important determinant of the extent of trading on equity and hence, capital structure.
III) Interest Coverage Ratio :- The purpose of calculating this ratio is to determine the composition of debt funds in the capital structure of a Co. It is a ratio between earning before interest and taxes (EBIT) and interest obligation
ICR = EBIT/Interest
IV) Debt Service Coverage ratio (DSCR) :- This ratio takes care of the limitation of ICR. It is calculated as follow
Net profit after tax +  depreciation  + Int. on term borrowings / Repayment of term berrowings Int. on term borrowings
Ans.15 Capital Budgeting decision refers to investment decision to which are to be taken by a finance manager for investment in long term projects. The basic criteria involved for taking such decisions are :-
(a) Rate of return and (b) risk involve. Firms try to invest in projects with maximum rate of return and minimum risk. The other factors to be considered are
(i) Cash flow of project :- A project must be able to generate reasonable cash flow.
(ii) Investment Criteria involved :- Calculations regarding amount of investment, interest rate and purpose have to be carefully analysed before making such decision. 6
Ans.16 a) A firm trading in biscuits need relatively less working capital as it requires the processing time for sales can be effected immediately and hence less working capital need be maintained.
(b) Steel pipes have a long manufacturing process is conversion time from raw materials to furnished products is long. Hence more working capital is required. 4
(c ) Ice-creams are seasonal products . They are demanded more during summer season. Hence more working capital is required in such firm only during summer months.
(d) A firm following a liberal credit policy has higher investment in debtors and hence requires more working capital.
Ans.18 Role of finance manager in a business :-
a) The finance manager determines size and composition of fixed assets in the business.
b) The finance manager determines the quantum of current assets as well as its break up into cash inventories. 
c) He must also determine the long term and short term financing to be used.
d) The finance manager determines break up of long term finances into debt and equity.
Ans.19 The five major factors affecting financing decisions are :
a) Cost of raising funds through various sources analysed and cheapest source is determined.
b) Risk-funds with least risk associated are selected.
c) Floatation Cost :- Higher floatation costs makes a source less attractive.
d) Cash Flow position of business :- When cast flow position is good debt financing may be more reliable.
e) Level of fixed operating costs : If fixed operating costs like rent insurance premium of a business are high then low debt financing must be resorted to.
f) Control Consideration : Equity leads to dilution of control. Hence firm facing takeover bide generally go for debt financing.
g) State of Capital Markets : If capital markets are in a state of boom raising finds through equity becomes easy.
Ans.20. Dividend decision determines amount of profits to be retained in the business factors affecting dividend decisions are :
(a) Growth opportunities : Companies with growth opportunities retain dividend for expansions and distribute lesser amount as dividend.
(b) Earnings : It earnings are high more dividend can be distributed and vice versa. The other two types of decisions taken by a finance manager are :
(i) Investment decisions and
(ii) Financing decisions.



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