CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Locomotion And Movement

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Locomotion And Movement

MCQ Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Locomotion and Movement

Ques. Calcium is important in skeletal muscle contraction because it
(a) binds to troponin to remove the masking of active sites on actin for myosin
(b) activates the myosin ATPase by binding to it
(c) detaches the myosin head from the actin filament
(d) prevents the formation of bonds between the myosin cross bridges and the actin filament.

Answer: A

Ques. Name the ion responsible for unmasking of active sites for myosin for cross-bridge activity during muscle contraction.
(a) Calcium
(b) Magnesium
(c) Sodium
(d) Potassium

Answer: A

Ques. Lack of relaxation between successive stimuli in sustained muscle contraction is known as
(a) tetanus
(b) tonus
(c) spasm
(d) fatigue. 

Answer: A

Ques. Sliding filament theory can be best explained as
(a) actin and myosin filaments do not shorten but rather slide pass each other
(b) when myofilaments slide pass each other, myosin filaments shorten while actin filaments do not shorten
(c) when myofilaments slide pass each other actin filaments shorten while myosin filaments do not shorten
(d) actin and myosin filaments shorten and slide pass each other. 

Answer: A

Ques. Stimulation of a muscle fibre by a motor neuron occurs at
(a) the neuro-muscular junction
(b) the transverse tubules
(c) the myofibril
(d) the sacroplasmic reticulum. 

Answer: A

Ques. The H-zone in the skeletal muscle fibre is due to
(a) the central gap between actin filaments extending through myosin filaments in the A-band
(b) extension of myosin filaments in the central portion of the A-band
(c) the absence of myofibrils in the central portion of A-band
(d) the central gap between myosin filaments in the A-band. 

Answer: A

Ques. During muscle contraction in humans, the
(a) sarcomere does not shorten
(b) A band remains same
(c) A, H and I bands shorten
(d) actin filaments shorten.

Answer: B

Ques. The type of muscle present in our
(a) heart is involuntary and unstriated smooth muscle
(b) intestine is striated and involuntary
(c) thigh is striated and voluntary
(d) upper arm is smooth muscle and fusiform in shape. 

Answer: C

Ques. The contractile protein of skeletal muscle involving ATPase activity is
(a) troponin
(b) tropomyosin
(c) myosin
(d) α-actinin. 

Answer: C

Ques. Which statement is correct for muscle contraction?
(a) Length of H-zone decreases.
(b) Length of A-band remains constant.
(c) Length of I-band increases.
(d) Length of two Z-line increases. 

Answer: A

Ques. What is sarcomere?
(a) Part between two H-line
(b) Part between two A-line
(c) Part between two I-band
(d) Part between two Z-line 

Answer: D

Ques. Which of the following is the contractile protein of a muscle?
(a) Tropomyosin
(b) Tubulin
(c) Myosin
(d) All of these 

Answer: C

Ques. The functional unit of contractile system in striated muscle is
(a) sarcomere
(b) Z-band
(c) cross bridges
(d) myofibril. 

Answer: A

Ques. When a muscle bends one part upon the other, it is called
(a) abductor
(b) regulator
(c) extremor
(d) flexor. 

Answer: D

Ques. Match the following columns and select the correct option.
      Column-I                      Column-II
(A) Floating ribs       (i) Located between second and seventh ribs
(B) Acromion           (ii) Head of the humerus
(C) Scapula             (iii) Clavicle
(D) Glenoid cavity    (iv) Do not connect with the sternum
    (A) (B) (C) (D)
(a) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(b) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(c) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)
(d) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii) 

Answer: D

Ques. Select the correct option.
(a) There are seven pairs of vertebrosternal, three pairs of vertebrochondral and two pairs of vertebral ribs.
(b) 8th, 9th and 10th pairs of ribs articulate directly with the sternum.
(c) 11th and 12th pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage.
(d) Each rib is a flat thin bone and all the ribs are connected dorsally to the thoracic vertebrae and ventrally to the sternum. 

Answer: A

Ques. Out of ‘X ’ pairs of ribs in humans only ‘Y ’ pairs are true ribs. Select the option that correctly represents values of X and Y and provides their explanation.
(a) X = 12, Y = 5   True ribs are attached dorsally to vertebral
                             column and sternum on the two ends
(b) X = 24, Y = 2    The true ribs are dorsally attached to vertebral
                             column but are free on ventral side
(c) X = 24, Y = 12  True ribs are dorsally attached to vertebral column
                             but are free on ventral side
(d) X = 12, Y = 7    True ribs are attached dorsally to vertebral
                             column and ventrally to the sternum

Answer: D

Question. Which of the following are locomotory movements?
(i) Walking
(ii) Running
(iii) Climbing
(iv) Flying
(v) Swimming
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (v)
(d) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)

Answer : D

Question. ATPase activity is found in
(a) myosin filament
(b) actin filament
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these.

Answer : A

Question. Read the following differences between A-band and I-band and select the incorrect ones.  

A-bandI-band
It is formed of myosin and actin filaments and is anisotropic.It is formed of only actin filaments and is isotropic.
It gives dark appearance.It gives light appearance.
In the central zone, it has light Hensen’s line or H-zone.In the central zone, it has dark Krause’s membrane or Z-line.
Its length remains unchanged during muscle contraction.It shortens during muscle contraction.

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (iv) only

Answer : B

Question. Which one of the following is correct pairing of a body part and the kind of muscle tissue that moves it?
(a) Iris – Involuntary smooth muscle
(b) Heart wall – Involuntary unstriated muscle
(c) Biceps of – Smooth muscle upper arm
(d) Pharynx – Smooth muscle

Answer : A

Question. Methods of locomotion performed by animals vary with their
(a) habitats
(b) demand of the situation
(c) level of organisation
(d) both (a) and (b).

Answer : D

Question. Choose the correct order of muscle contraction from starting to completion.

(a) Stimuli → Neurotransmitter → Release of
Ca2+ → Cross bridge formation → Excitation
of T-system → Sliding of actin filament
(b) Stimuli → Neurotransmitter → Excitation of
T-system → Release of Ca2+ → Cross bridge
formation → Sliding of actin filament → ‘H’
band diminishes
(c) Stimuli → Excitation of T-system →
Neurotransmitter secretion → Cross bridge
formation → Sliding of actin filament →
H-band diminishes
(d) Stimuli → Neurotransmitter → Cross bridge
formation → Excitation of T-system →
Sliding of actin filament

Answer : B

Question. Fill up the blanks in the following sentence.
The thin filaments of myofibril contain polymeric (A) actin and two filaments of (B) protein along with (C) protein for masking binding site for myosin.
      A         B                C
(a) G   troponin        tropomyosin
(b) G tropomyosin    troponin
(c) F troponin           tropomyosin
(d) F tropomyosin     troponin

Answer : D

Question. Which is not true in muscle contraction?
(a) Actin and myosin make actomyosin.
(b) Phosphate reserve comes from phosphocreatine.
(c) Chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
(d) Mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy.

Answer : D

Question. Read the following statements carefully and select the correct ones.
(i) Cardiac fibres are branched with one or more nuclei.
(ii) Smooth muscles are unbranched and cylindrical.
(iii) Skeletal muscles can be branched or unbranched.
(iv) Smooth muscles are non-striated.
(a) only (iv) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (iii) and (iv) (d) only (iii)

Answer : A

Question. Inner walls of hollow visceral organs of bodylike t he alimentary canal contains
(a) non-striated muscles
(b) skeletal muscles
(c) smooth muscles
(d) both (a) and (c).

Answer : D

Case Based MCQs 

Read the following passage and answer questions from 31 to 35 given below.
Movement is an essential feature of all living beings which includes protoplasmic streaming, movement of cilia, flagella, fins, limbs, wings etc.
Locomotion is the voluntary movement, which causes animal to change its place in search of food, shelter, mate etc. It requires coordinated muscular activities of skeletal, visceral and
cardiac muscles. Skeletal muscles are further classified into red and white muscle fibres based on quantity of myoglobin.

Question. The cytoplasmic movement that occurs inside the cells is
(a) amoeboid
(b) ciliary
(c) flagellar
(d) cyclosis.

Answer : D

Question. Which of the following involves ciliary movement?
(a) Upper respiratory tract
(b) Phagocytes
(c) Sperms
(d) Macrophages

Answer : A

Question. Which of the following is true regarding red muscle fibres ?
(a) Less mitochondria
(b) Less sarcoplasmic reticulum
(c) Less myoglobin
(d) Fast rate of contraction

Answer : B

Question. The movement in leucocytes is
(a) ciliary
(b) amoeboid
(c) cyclosis
(d) muscular.

Answer : B

Question. Identify from the given list, the characteristics of red muscles (A) and white muscles (B) and select the option that correctly segregates the characters.
(i) Less number of mitochondria
(ii) More number of mitochondria
(iii) Sarcoplasmic reticulum is abundant
(iv) High myoglobin content
(v) Sarcoplasmic reticulum is less
(vi) Aerobic muscles
(vii) Depend on anaerobic respiration for energy
(viii) Less myoglobin content
                A                          B
(a) (i), (iii), (vii), (viii)     (ii), (iv), (v), (vi)
(b) (ii), (iv), (v), (vi)       (i), (iii), (vii), (viii)
(c) (i), (iii), (iv), (vii)       (ii), (v), (vi), (viii)
(d) (ii), (v), (vi), (viii)      (i), (iii), (iv), (vii)

Answer : B

Assertion & Reasoning Based MCQs For question numbers 41-47, two statements are given-one labelled Assertion and the other labelled Reason. Select the correct answer to these questions from the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) as given below.
(a) Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) Assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) Assertion is false but reason is true.

Question. Assertion : Locomotion enables the animal to find its partner.
Reason : Locomotion enables the animal to shift its entire body from place to place.

Answer : B

Question. Assertion : Movement of body parts serves to change the body posture.
Reason : Body parts move in relation to body axis.

Answer : B

Question. Assertion : White muscles depend mainly on anaerobic glycolysis for energy production.
Reason : White muscles carry out anaerobic contractions, accumulate malic acid in considerable amounts during strenuous work and soon get fatigued.

Answer : C

Question. Assertion : The synaptic channels on the end plate of skeletal muscle are activated by atropine.
Reason : Atropine is a neurotransmitter.

Answer : D

Important Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Locomotion and Movement 

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Mention the locomotory structure of Hydra that is also involved in capturing food.

Answer. Hydra can use its tentacles for the capturing its prey besides locomotion.

Question. Name the genetic disorder that causes progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.

Answer. Muscular dystrophy

Question. Mention the names of contractile proteins of muscles.

Answer. The two important contractile proteins of muscles are myosin and actin.

Question. Which type of movement facilitates transport of spermatozoa through vasa efferentia of male?

Answer. Ciliary movement

Question. Write the name of proteins that constitute thin filament of a sarcomere.

Answer. The filament of sarcomere comprises of three proteins; actin, troponin and tropomyosin.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Describe the important steps of mechanism of muscle contraction in the form of flow chart.

Answer. The following flow chart describes the steps of muscle contraction : Discharge of motor neuron ↓ Release of transmitter (acetylcholine) at motor end plate ↓ Binding of acetylcholine to end plate of motor receptors ↓ Increased Na+ and K+ conductance in end-plate membrane ↓ Generation of end-plate potential ↓ Generation of action potential in muscle fibres ↓ Inward spread of depolarisation along T tubules ↓ Release of Ca2+ from terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum and diffusion to thick and thin filaments ↓ Binding of Ca2+ to troponin C, uncovering myosin - binding sites on actin ↓ Formation of cross-linkages between actin and myosin and sliding of thin on thick filaments, causing contraction of muscle.

Question. All the multicellular organisms show a wide range of movements, but plants do not move from one place to another place. Why?

Answer. Movement is one of the significant features of living organisms. This is observed in both animals and plants. Plants do not move from one place to another because they do not show locomotion. They show movements of various parts such as leaves, stem, flower, etc., in response to external conditions but not locomotion.

Question. Write the differences between actin and myosin filament.

Answer. The differences between actin and myosin filaments are as follows : 

Actin filamentsMyosin filaments
(i) These are found in I-band and also projectin A -band.These are found in A-band only.
(ii) These are thin, having size of 50 Å.These are thick, having size of 100 Å.
(iii) Consist of 3 proteins: actin, tropomyosin and troponin.Consist of 2 proteins: myosin and meromyosin.
(iv) Slide into H-zone during muscle contraction.Do not slide during muscle contraction.
(v) Cross bridges (heads) are absent.Cross bridges (heads) are present.

Question. All locomotions are movements but all movements are not locomotions. Justify.

Answer. Plants and animals exhibit a wide range of movements such as cytoplasmic streaming, movement of cilia, flagella, limbs, eyelids, tongue, etc. Some movements that result in a change of place or location are called locomotion, e.g., walking, climbing, flying, etc. Every movement does not change the location of organism but an organism can change its location only by the movements of certain structures. Hence, all locomotions are movements but all movements are not locomotions

Question. Diagrammatically represent the stages in crossbridge formation between actin and myosin during muscle contraction.

Answer. Stages of crossbridge formation between actin and myosin during muscle contraction.

Question. (a) How does calcium help in muscle contraction?
(b) Which enzyme is involved in muscle contraction?

Answer. (a) On receiving a stimulus from motor neuron, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases the stored Ca2+. Calcium binds with the specific sites present on the troponin of thin filament, induces conformational changes that lead to exposure of active sites present on F-actin molecule. Now these sites bind myosin head to form cross-bridges and eventually causes sliding of thin myofilament along thick myofilament with the help of Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity. During the relaxation, Ca2+ is pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum. Release of Ca2+ from troponin makes troponin available to mask active site at myosin head and cessation of interaction between actin and myosin occurs. (b) Enzyme myosin ATPase takes part in muscle contraction.

Question. (a) What are antagonistic muscles? Explain with examples.
(b) Explain the structure of a thin myofilament with the help of diagram only.

Answer. (a) Antagonistic muscles are the pair of muscles that act opposite to each other, e.g., biceps (flexor) and triceps (extensor) are antagonist for the elbow joint. During flexion at the elbow, biceps contract and triceps relax, while triceps contract and biceps relax during extension. (b) Structure of thin myofilament: 

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction with suitable diagram.

Answer.  Sliding filament theory of muscle contraction was proposed by A.F. Huxley and H.E. Huxley in 1954. The smallest unit of muscle contraction is a sarcomere. According to the theory, following are the steps involved in muscle contraction : (i) During muscle contraction, the thin myofilaments slide inward towards the H-zone. (ii) The sarcomere shortens, but the lengths of thin and thick myofilaments do not change. (iii) The crossbridges of the thick myofilaments connect with portions of actin of the thin myofilaments. The myosin cross bridges move on the surface of the thin myofilaments and the thin and thick myofilaments slide past each other. (iv) As the thin myofilaments move past the thick myofilaments, the H zone narrows and even disappears when the thin myofilaments meet at the centre of the sarcomere. Thus, the length of the sarcomere decreases during contraction. Size of I band also decreases. (v) The lengths of the thick and thin myofilaments do not change during muscle contraction. (Img 176)

Questions. Why is cartilage pliable, while bone is rigid?

Answer. bones have calcium.

Questions. Name the following

a)The cup shaped bone in the hind limb.

b)Autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction.

Answera-Patella.

           b-Myasthenia gravis

Questions.Name three organ systems of the body that are involved in locomotion in human beings?

Answer: Skeletal ,muscular

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