CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Biological Classification

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1. Polluted water bodies have usually very high abundance of plants like Nostoc and Oscillatoria. Give reasons. 
Ans1: They are chemoautotrophs which oxidise nitrates, nitrites and NH3

2.Suppose you accidently find an old preserved permanent slide without a label. In your effort to identify it, you place the slide under microscope and observe the following features: Unicellular, well defined nucleus, biflagellate- one flagella lying longitudinally and the other transversely. What would you identify it as ? To which kingdom does it belong? 
Ans2 :Dinoflagellates. They belong to the kingdom Protista.

3. Biological classification is a dynamic and ever evolving phenomenon which keeps changing with our understanding of life forms. Justify the statement taking any two examples. 
Ex.1- Two kingdom classification was developed but it was found inadequate later.
Ex. 2. R H Whittaker proposed 5 kingdom classification based on cell structure, thallus organization, nutritional modes, reproduction as well as the phylogeny.
Ans3 : The phylogenetic system of classification is dynamic because its sources are fossil records of organisms.

Objective Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Biological Classification

Question : Five kingdom system of classification suggested by R.H. Whittaker is not based on
(a) presence or absence of a well defined nucleus
(b) mode of reproduction
(c) mode of nutrition
(d) complexity of body organisation.
Answer : B 

Question : Maximum nutritional diversity is found in the group
(a) fungi         (b) animalia
(c) monera     (d) plantae.
Answer : C 

Question : In the five kingdom classification, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella have been included in
(a) protista     (b) algae
(c) plantae     (d) monera. 
Answer : A 

Question : In which kingdom would you classify the archaea and nitrogen-fixing organisms, if the five kingdom system of classification is used ?
(a) Plantae     (b) Fungi
(c) Protista     (d) Monera 
Answer : D 

Question : In five kingdom system, the main basis of classification is
(a) structure of nucleus    (b) mode of nutrition
(c) structure of cell wall    (d) asexual reproduction.
Answer : B 

Question : In the five kingdom system of classification, which single kingdom out of the following can include blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria?
(a) Plantae     (b) Protista
(c) Monera     (d) Fungi 

Answer : C 

Question : BGA (blue green algae) are included in which of the following groups?
(a) Bryophytes    (b) Prokaryotes
(c) Protista         (d) Fungi (1996)
Answer : B 

Question : An important criterion for modern day classification is
(a) resemblances in morphology
(b) anatomical and physiological traits
(c) breeding habits
(d) presence or absence of notochord. 
Answer : B 

Question : Match the organisms in column-I with habitats in column-II.
Column-I                       Column-II
A. Halophiles                (i) Hot springs
B. Thermoacidophiles    (ii) Aquatic environment
C. Methanogens           (iii) Guts of ruminants
D. Cyanobacteria          (iv) Salty area
Select the correct answer from the options given below.
(a) A-(iv), B-(i), C-(iii), D-(ii)
(b) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv)
(c) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(i)
(d) A-(ii), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(i) 
Answer : A 

Question : Which of the following are found in extreme saline conditions?
(a) Eubacteria          (b) Cyanobacteria
(c) Mycobacteria      (d) Archaebacteria
Answer : D

Question : Which among the following are the smallest living cells, known without a definite cell wall, pathogenic to plants as well as animals and can survive without oxygen?
(a) Pseudomonas     (b) Mycoplasma
(c) Nostoc               (d) Bacillus 
Answer : B 

Question : Which of the following components provides sticky character to the bacterial cell?
(a) Nuclear membrane     (b) Plasma membrane
(c) Glycocalyx                 (d) Cell wall 
Answer : C 

Question : DNA replication in bacteria occurs
(a) within nucleolus
(b) prior to fission
(c) just before transcription
(d) during S phase. 
Answer : B 

Question : Methanogens belong to
(a) eubacteria          (b) archaebacteria
(c) dinoflagellates    (d) slime moulds.
Answer : B 

Question : The primitive prokaryotes responsible for the production of biogas from the dung of ruminant animals, include the
(a) methanogens     (b) eubacteria
(c) halophiles          (d) thermoacidophiles.
Answer : A 

Question : Archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in
(a) cell membrane structure
(b) mode of nutrition
(c) cell shape
(d) mode of reproduction. 
Answer : A 

Question : Which of the following are likely to be present in deep sea water?
(a) Blue-green algae       (b) Saprophytic fungi
(c) Archaebacteria          (d) Eubacteria
Answer : C 

Question : Pigment containing membranous extensions in some cyanobacteria are
(a) pneumatophores      (b) chromatophores
(c) heterocysts              (d) basal bodies. 
Answer : B 

Question : The cyanobacteria are also referred to as
(a) protists              (b) golden algae
(c) slime moulds      (d) blue green algae.
Answer : D 

Question : The most abundant prokaryotes helpful to humans in making curd from milk and in production of antibiotics are the ones categorised as
(a) cyanobacteria
(b) archaebacteria
(c) chemosynthetic autotrophs
(d) heterotrophic bacteria. 
Answer : D 

Question : In eubacteria, a cellular component that resembles eukaryotic cell is
(a) plasma membrane (b) nucleus
(c) ribosomes (d) cell wall. 
Answer : A 

Question : Some hyperthermophilic organisms that grow in highly acidic (pH 2) habitats belong to the two groups
(a) eubacteria and archaea
(b) cyanobacteria and diatoms
(c) protists and mosses
(d) liverworts and yeasts. 
Answer : A 

Question : Select the correct combination of the statements (i-iv) regarding the characteristics of certain organisms.
(i) Methanogens are archaebacteria which produce methane in marshy areas.
(ii) Nostoc is a filamentous blue-green alga which fixes atmospheric nitrogen.
(iii) Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria synthesize cellulose from glucose.
(iv) Mycoplasma lack a cell wall and can survive without oxygen.
The correct statements are
(a) (ii) and (iii)             (b) (i),(ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv)      (d) (i), (ii) and (iv).
Answer : D

Question : The causal organism for African sleeping sickness is-
(a) Entamoeba histolytica (b) Giardia (c) Leishmania (d) T. gambiense
Answer : D
Trypanosoma gambiense was first observed by Forde in 1901. 
Question : Lichens indicate SO2 pollution because they
(a) show association between algae and fungi
(b) grow faster than others
(c) are sensitive to SO2
(d) flourish in SO2 rich environment
Answer : C
As the algal component dies and thus the components of lichens dissociate.
Question : Which nucleus is vegetative in nature in paramecium?
(a) micronucleus (b) macronucleus (c) both micronucleus (d) none of these
Answer : B
Macronucleus is vegetative in paramecium.
Question : Escherichia coli is used extensively in biological research as it is-
(a) easily cultured (b) easily available (c) easy to handle (d) easily multiplied in host
Answer : A
It can multiply easily in the laboratory conditions.
Question : Non-photosynthetic, aerobic nitrogen fixing soil bacterium is-
(a) Rhizobium (b) Clostridium (c) Azotobacter (d) Klebsiella
Answer : A
A non photosynthetic, aerobic nitrogen fixing soil bacterium is Azotobacter.
Question : Mycorrhiza exhibits the phenomenon of
(a) parasitism (b) symbiosis (c) antagonism (d) endemism
Answer : B
Association between roots of higher plants and fungi, where both are benefitted, thus it is a symbiotic association.
Question : Columella is a specialized structure found in the sporangium of
(a) Spirogyra (b) Ulothrix (c) Rhizopus (d) None of these
Answer : C
Dome shaped, sterile portion in the sporangia. It helps in the dispersal of spores.
Question : The site of respiration in bacteria is-
(a) ribosome (b) microsome (c) episome (d) mesosome
Answer : D
Mesosomes are formed by the infoldings of the membrane and have enzymes for respiration. 
Question : Viruses possess
(a) ribosomes to synthesize protein (b) organelle for its vital mechanism
(c) either DNA or RNA (d) none of these
Answer : C
Viruses always contain only a single kind of nucleic acid. It can be either DNA or RNA.
Question : An important criterion for modern day classification is-
(a) resemblances in morphology (b) anatomical and physiological traits
(c) breeding habits (d) presence or absence of notochord
Answer : B
With the advancement of microscopes, the anatomical details were well understood that helped in classification.

Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
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Chapter 11 Transport in Plants
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Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
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Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants
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Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development
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Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption
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Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases
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Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation
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Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination
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Chapter 2 Biological Classification
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Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement
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Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination
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Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration
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Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals
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