CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Body Fluids And Circulation

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Body Fluids And Circulation

MCQ Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Body Fluids and Circulation

Ques. Match the following columns and select the correct option.
  Column-I             Column - II
(A) Eosinophils       (i) Immune response
(B) Basophils         (ii) Phagocytosis
(C) Neutrophils      (iii) Release histaminase, destructive enzymes
(D) Lymphocytes    (iv) Release granules containing histamine
     (A)(B) (C)(D)
(a) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
(b) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
(d) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv) 

Answer: A

Ques. Match the items given in column I with those in column II and select the correct option given below.
   Column I         Column II
A. Fibrinogen    (i) Osmotic balance
B. Globulin       (ii) Blood clotting
C. Albumin       (iii) Defence mechanism
      A    B   C
(a) (iii) (ii) (i)
(b) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) (i) (iii) (ii)
(d) (ii) (iii) (i) 

Answer: D

Ques. Adult human RBCs are enucleate. Which of the following statement(s) is/are most appropriate explanation for this feature?
(1) They do not need to reproduce.
(2) They are somatic cells.
(3) They do not metabolise.
(4) All their internal space is available for oxygen transport.
(a) Only (1)
(b) (1), (3) and (4)
(c) (2) and (3)
(d) Only (4) 

Answer: D

Ques. Name the blood cells, whose reduction in number can cause clotting disorder, leading to excessive loss of blood from the body.
(a) Erythrocytes
(b) Leucocytes
(c) Neutrophils
(d) Thrombocytes

Answer: D

Ques. Serum differs from blood in
(a) lacking globulins
(b) lacking albumins
(c) lacking clotting factors
(d) lacking antibodies.

Answer: C

Ques. Erythropoiesis starts in
(a) spleen
(b) red bone marrow
(c) kidney
(d) liver.

Answer: B

Ques. Person with blood group AB is considered as universal recipient because he has
(a) both A and B antigens on RBC but no antibodies in the plasma
(b) both A and B antibodies in the plasma
(c) no antigen on RBC and no antibody in the plasma
(d) both A and B antigens in the plasma but no antibodies.

Answer: A

Ques. A certain road accident patient with unknown blood group needs immediate blood transfusion. His one doctor friend at once offers his blood. What was the blood group of the donor?
(a) Blood group B
(b) Blood group AB
(c) Blood group O
(d) Blood group A 

Answer: C

Ques. Which one of the following human organs is often called the “graveyard” of RBCs?
(a) Gall bladder
(b) Kidney
(c) Spleen
(d) Liver 

Answer: C

Question. Select the incorrect difference between open and closed circulatory system.
Open circulatory                Closed circulatory system
system

(a) Blood flows at high      Blood flows at low pressure.
pressure.

(b) Exchange of               Exchange of
material is direct.            material occurs
                                     through tissue fluid.

(c) It is less efficient.      It is more efficient
(d) Found in leech, prawns, etc.     Found in
                                                  earthworm, squids, etc.

Answer. A

Question. Which of the following cytoplasmic granules contain histamine?
(a) Basophils
(b) Eosinophils
(c) Acidophils
(d) Neutrophils

Answer. A

Question. If one litre of blood is drawn out of 5 litres from the body of man, how much blood would be left by the next day?
(a) 5 litres
(b) 4 litres
(c) 4.5 litres
(d) 3.0 litres

Answer. A

Question. The heart sound “dub” is caused by the
(a) opening of mitral valve
(b) closing of mitral valve
(c) closing of semilunar valve
(d) opening of tricuspid valve.

Answer. C

Question. Select the correct statement about WBC.
(a) Do not have cell organelles including nucleus.
(b) Its formation is called erythropoiesis.
(c) Vitamin B12 and folic acid stimulate the maturation of WBC.
(d) Can squeeze through blood capillaries

Answer. D

Question. pH of blood
(a) is greater than 9
(b) ranges between 7-8
(c) is less than 7
(d) none of these.

Answer. B

Question. The number of which cells increase duringallergy? 
(a) Monocytes
(b) Eosinophils
(c) Erythrocytes
(d) Thrombocytes

Answer. B

Question. Both RBC and WBC are formed in the
(a) thymus
(b) adrenal
(c) thyroid
(d) bone marrow.

Answer. D

Question. Anaemia refers to
(a) lack of Hb
(b) lack of WBCs
(c) lack of blood
(d) lack of thrombocytes.

Answer. A

Question. Read the following statements and choosethe cor rect option.
A. Human heart is an ectodermal derivative.
B. Mitral valve guards the opening between
the right atrium and left ventricle.
C. SAN is located on the left upper corner of the right atrium.
D. Stroke volume × Heart rate = Cardiac output
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) A and B are correct.
(c) B and D are correct.
(d) Only D is correct.

Answer. D

Question. Select the correct statement.
(a) Capillaries are made up of three layers.
(b) The walls of the arteries are thick and muscular.
(c) In veins, flow of blood is fast.
(d) All of these

Answer. B

Question. Lymph is colourless because
(a) WBCs are absent
(b) WBCs are present
(c) RBCs are present
(d) RBCs are absent.

Answer. D

Ques. Which one of the following plasma proteins is involved in the coagulation of blood?
(a) Albumin
(b) Serum amylase
(c) Globulin
(d) Fibrinogen 

Answer: D

Ques. A person with unknown blood group under ABO system, has suffered much blood loss in an accident and needs immediate blood transfusion. His friend who has valid certificate of his own blood type, offers for blood donation without delay. What would have
been the type of blood group of the donor friend?
(a) Type B
(b) Type AB
(c) Type O
(d) Type A 

Answer: C

Ques. Which two of the following changes (i –iv) usually tend to occur in the plain dwellers when they move to high altitudes (3,500 m or more)?
(i) Increase in red blood cell size
(ii) Increase in red blood cell production
(iii) Increased breathing rate
(iv) Increase in thrombocyte count
Changes occurring are
(a) (ii) and (iii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (i) and (ii). 

Answer: A

Ques. The haemoglobin content per 100 mL of blood of a normal healthy human adult is
(a) 5 - 11 gm
(b) 25 - 30 gm
(c) 17 - 20 gm
(d) 12 - 16 gm.

Answer: D

Ques. There is no DNA in
(a) mature RBCs
(b) a mature spermatozoan
(c) hair root
(d) an enucleated ovum 

Answer: A

Ques. Globulins contained in human blood plasma are primarily involved in
(a) osmotic balance of body fluids
(b) oxygen transport in the blood
(c) clotting of blood
(d) defence mechanisms of body.

Answer: D

Ques. The most popularly known blood grouping is the ABO grouping. It is named ABO and not ABC, because “O” in it refers to having
(a) overdominance of this type on the genes for A and B types
(b) one antibody only - either anti - A or anti - B on the RBCs
(c) no antigens A and B on RBCs
(d) other antigens besides A and B on RBCs.

Answer: C

Ques. The most active phagocytic white blood cells are
(a) eosinophils and lymphocytes
(b) neutrophils and monocytes
(c) neutrophils and eosinophils
(d) lymphocytes and macrophages. 

Answer: B

Ques. Which type of white blood cells are concerned with the release of histamine and the natural anticoagulant heparin?
(a) Eosinophils
(b) Monocytes
(c) Neutrophils
(d) Basophils 

Answer: D

Ques. A drop of each of the following, is placed separately on four slides. Which of them will not coagulate?
(a) Blood serum
(b) Sample from the thoracic duct of lymphatic system
(c) Whole blood from pulmonary vein
(d) Blood plasma 

Answer: A

Ques. You are required to draw blood from a patient and to keep it in a test tube for analysis of blood corpuscles and plasma. You are also provided with the following four types of test tubes. Which of these you will not use for the purpose?
(a) Test tube containing calcium bicarbonate
(b) Chilled test tube
(c) Test tube containing heparin
(d) Test tube containing sodium oxalate 

Answer: A

Ques. In the ABO system of blood groups, if both antigens are present but no antibody, the blood group of the individual would be
(a) B
(b) O
(c) AB
(d) A.

Answer: C

Ques. What is correct for blood group O?
(a) No antigens but both a and b antibodies are present.
(b) A antigen and b antibody present.
(c) Antigen and antibody both absent.
(d) A and B antigens and a, b antibodies present.

Answer: A

Ques. Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused when fertilisation takes place between gametes of
(a) Rh– female and Rh+ male
(b) Rh+ female and Rh– male
(c) Rh+ female and Rh+ male
(d) Rh– female and Rh– male. 

Answer: A

Ques. Which statement is true forWBC?
(a) Non-nucleated
(b) In deficiency, cancer is caused
(c) Manufactured in thymus
(d) Can squeeze through blood capillaries 

Answer: D

Ques. Which is the principal cation in the plasma of the blood?
(a) Potassium
(b) Magnesium
(c) Calcium
(d) Sodium 

Answer: D

Ques. The blood group, with antibody-A and antibody-B is
(a) O
(b) B
(c) A
(d) AB. 

Answer: A

Ques. The problem, due to Rh– factor arises when the blood of two (Rh+ and Rh–) mix up
(a) during pregnancy
(b) in a test tube
(c) through transfusion
(d) both (a) and (c).

Answer: D

Ques. Which of the following is agranulocyte?
(a) Basophil
(b) Neutrophil
(c) Lymphocyte
(d) Eosinophil 

Answer: C

Ques. The life span of human WBC is approximately
(a) between 2 to 3 months
(b) more than 4 months
(c) less than 10 days
(d) between 20 to 30 days. 

Answer: C

Ques. Vitamin K is required for
(a) change of prothrombin into thrombin
(b) synthesis of prothrombin
(c) change of fibrinogen to fibrin
(d) formation of thromboplastin.

Answer: B

Important Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Body Fluids and Circulation

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What is meant by double circulation? What is its significance?

Answer. The type of blood circulation in which oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood do not get mixed is termed double circulation. It includes systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. The circulatory pathway of double circulation is given in the following flow chart. (IMG 131) Significance of double circulation : Double circulation or separation of systemic and pulmonary circulations provides a higher metabolic rate to the body and also allows the two circulations to have different blood pressures according to the need of the organs they supply.

Question. What is the role of hormones in regulating the cardiac activity?

Answer. Hormones play an important role in regulating the cardiac activity. The substance secreted at the end of the vasoconstrictor nerves is called norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It regulates the blood pressure under normal conditions. Norepinephrine causes constriction of essentially all the blood vessels of the body and thus increases the heart rate. Another hormone called epinephrine (adrenaline) is also secreted by the medulla of the adrenal endocrine gland. It also acts directly on the blood vessels, usually to cause vasoconstriction. Epinephrine has a greater effect on heart activity than norepinephrine. It also causes weak constriction of the blood vessels of the muscles in comparison with a much stronger constriction that results from norepinephrine. Thus adrenal medullary hormones increase the heart beat.

Question. What is the effect of the following on the heart rate?
(a) Sympathetic nervous system
(b) Noradrenaline
(c) Fever

Answer. (a) Sympathetic nervous system accelerates the heart beat. It constricts arteries that raise blood pressure. (b) Refer to answer  29. (c) Fever causes an increase in heart rate as an increase of a single degree of temperature increases heart rate of about 10 beats per minute.

Question. Differentiate between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis.

Answer. Differences between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis are as follows: 

CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Body Fluids And Circulation

Question. Differentiate between arteries and veins.

Answer. Differences between arteries and veins are as follows: 

CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Body Fluids And Circulation

CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Body Fluids And Circulation

Question. What are the factors that affect pulse rate?

Answer. The factors that affect the pulse rate are as follows: (i) The pulse rate in children is more rapid than in adults. (ii) The pulse rate is more rapid in the females than in the males. (iii) When the person is in standing position the pulse rate is more rapid than when he/she is lying down. (iv) When any strong emotion is experienced the pulse rate is increased, for example, anger, excitement, fear, etc. (v) Any exercise increases the rate of the pulse. (vi) A temperature increase of just 1°C raises the heart rate by about 10 beats per minute. This is why pulse increases substantially in a person suffering from fever.

Question. Explain the different steps involved in the process of blood clotting.

Answer. Blood clotting occurs in the following steps: (i) At the site of an injury, the blood platelets disintegrate and release a phospholipid, called platelet factor-3 or platelet thromboplastin. Injured tissues also release a lipoprotein factor called thromboplastin. These two factors combine with calcium ions and certain proteins of the blood plasma to form an enzyme called prothrombinase. (ii) The prothrombinase inactivates heparin or antiprothrombin- anticoagulant in the presence of calcium. Prothrombinase catalyses breakdown of prothrombin (inactive plasma protein) into an active protein called thrombin and some small peptide fragments. (iii) Thrombin acts as an enzyme and first brings about depolymerisation of fibrinogen (a soluble plasma protein) into its monomers. Later, thrombin stimulates repolymerisation of these monomers into long insoluble fibre-like polymers called fibrin. The thin, long and solid fibres of fibrin form a dense network upon the wound and trap blood corpuscles (RBCs, WBCs and platelets) to form a clot. The clot seals the wound and stops bleeding. Soon after the clot starts contracting and a pale yellow fluid, the serum, starts oozing out. This serum is blood plasma minus fibrinogen and blood corpuscles. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting as it is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver. The mechanism of blood clotting is explained by the given flow chart: (IMG 133)

Question. Draw a neatly labelled diagram of an artery and a vein.

AnswerThe labelled diagram of an artery and a vein are as follows: 

CBSE Class 11 Biology HOTs Body Fluids And Circulation

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain different types of blood groups and donor compatibility by making a table.

Answer. ABO blood groups in human beings were reported for first time by Karl Landsteiner. ABO blood groups are determined by the gene I (isoagglutinin). There are three alleles, IA, IB and IO of this gene. Proteins produced by the IA and IB alleles are called A antigen and B antigen respectively. (i) People with blood group A have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and antibodies to antigen B in their plasma. (ii) Persons with blood group B have B antigen on their RBCs, and antibodies against A antigen in their plasma. (iii) Individuals with AB blood group have both antigen A and antigen B on their RBCs, and no antibodies for either of the antigens in their plasma. (iv) Type O individuals are without A and B antigens on their RBCs, but have antibodies for both antigens in their plasma. If a blood transfusion is made between an incompatible donor and recipient, reaction of antigens on the cells and antibodies in the plasma produces clots that clogs capillaries. Blood groups with donor compatibility is given in the table: (IMG 133)

Question. (a) What is blood pressure?
(b) How is it measured and what is it’s normal value?

Answer. (a) Blood pressure is defined as the pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels produced by the discharge of blood into them by contractions of the left ventricle. (b) The blood pressure is measured from brachial artery by an instrument called sphygmomanometer in terms of height in millimeters of a column of mercury. When the left ventricle contracts pushing the blood into the aorta, the pressure produced is known as systolic blood pressure (120 mm Hg). When the complete diastole occurs and the heart is resting, the pressure within the blood vessels is called as the diastolic blood pressure (80 mm Hg). A sphygmomanometer consists of an inflatable cuff attached to a pressure gauge. The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and rapidly inflated with a hand pump until no pulse is felt in the wrist. This shows that the blood supply to the forearm is stopped. A stethoscope is placed on the brachial artery just below the cuff, and the cuff is slowly deflated. The sound of blood flow is heard through the stethoscope. When thumping is heard, pressure on the gauge is noted. This sound is of the blood rushing through the arteries at peak pressure due to ventricular contraction. The reading on the gauge is the systolic blood pressure. The sound fades until it stops, the reading on the gauge now indicates the diastolic blood pressure. The systolic pressure shows the force with which the left ventricle pushes blood into the aortic arch. The diastolic pressure indicates the elasticity of the blood vessels, and is useful in diagnosing hardening of arteries or strain on their walls. The blood pressure is expressed as BP = 120/80 mm Hg.

Question. Define a portal vein? Explain the functions of such a vein in our digestive system.

Answer. Main blood vessel in which subsidiary venules join to transfer the secretion at the target site. Hepatic portal vein plays vital role in the digestive system the impurities and to detoxify the harmful materials.

Question. Explain why the blood of earthworm is less efficient oxygen carrier than that of man?

Answer. In human being haemoglobin is present in the RBC , but in earthworm it is present in plasma. So it attains less surface area to bind to oxygen.

Question. Why is swelling of feet or leg caused when a person stands immobile for a long time?

Answer. Because blood has to pass into the heart against the gravity so it leakes into interstitial spaces.

 
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