CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for Economics

Download CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for Economics 2023 2024. Refer to the latest syllabus provided below and free download latest curriculum of Class 12 for Economics issued by CBSE and NCERT, free download in pdf, get topic wise weightage, suggested readings and books based on latest syllabus and guidelines. The Economics Class 12 Syllabus curriculum has been developed and issued by CBSE and NCERT for Economics in Class 12. All students studying in Class 12 are suggested to go through latest syllabus to ensure that their preparation is as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE NCERT KVS. Class 12 Economics students should do preparation for Economics exam strictly based on the latest curriculum and concentrate more on the topics with higher weightage to help them score higher marks in Class 12 Economics class tests and exams

Class 12 Economics Syllabus

It is important for students to study as per the latest Class 12 Economics curriculum and marks breakup as per important topics. This will help to prepare properly for the upcoming examination. You can click on the following links to download the latest and past year syllabus provided by us below.

Year Wise Economics Syllabus Class 12

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates 30 Periods

What is Macroeconomics?
Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods,intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income -Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income:
Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP
GDP Deflator, GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking 15 Periods
Money – meaning and functions, supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue,
Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment               30 Periods
Aggregate demand and its components.
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them -
changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy           17 Periods
Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts;
Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments                    18 Periods
Balance of payments account - meaning and components;
Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate.
Managed Floating exchange rate system

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991:     28 Periods
A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.
Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
Economic Reforms since 1991:
Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy                         60 Periods
Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
Rural development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming
Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India:                  12 Periods
A comparison with neighbours
India and Pakistan
India and China
Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human
Development Indicators

Part C: Project in Economics                  20 Periods
Prescribed Books:
1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE
Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.


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