NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements

Read and download NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Sociology. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2022 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Sociology textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Social Movements Class 12 Sociology NCERT

Class 12 Sociology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Social Movements in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Sociology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Social Movements NCERT Class 12

A great many students and office-workers around the world go to work only for five or six days. And rest on the weekends. Yet, very few people who relax on their day off realise that this holiday is the outcome of a long struggle by workers. That the work-day should not exceed eight hours, that men and women should  he paid equally for doing the same work, that workers are entitled to social security and pension – these and many other rights were gained through social movements. Social movements have shaped the world we live in and continue to do so. We often assume that the rights we enjoy just happened to exist. It is important to recall the struggles of the past, which made these rights possible. You have read about the 19th century social reform movements, of the struggles  against caste and gender discrimination and of the nationalist movement in India that brought us independence from colonial rule in 1947. You are familiar also with the many nationalist movements around the world in Asia and Africa  and Americas that put an end to colonial rule. The socialist  movements world over, the civil rights movement in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s that fought for equal rights for Blacks, the anti apartheid struggle in South Africa have all changed the world in fundamental ways. Social movements not only change societies.

They also inspire other social movements.  You saw in chapter 3 how the Indian national movementshaped the making of the Indian Constitution. And how in turn the Indian Constitution played a major role in bringing about social change.

FEATURES OF A SOCIAL MOVEMENT

People may damage a bus and attack its driver when the bus has run over a child. This is an isolated incident of protest. Since it flares up and dies down it is not a social movement. A social movement requires sustained collective action over time. Such action is often directed against the state and takes the form of demanding changes in state policy or practice. Spontaneous, disorganised protest cannot be called a social movement either. Collective action must be marked by some degree of organisation. This organisation may include a leadership and a  tructure that defines how members relate to each other, make decisions and carry them out. Those participating in a social movement also have shared objectives and ideologies. A social movement has a general orientation or way of  approaching to bring about (or to prevent) change. These defining features arenot constant. They may change over the course of a social movement’s life. Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue, such as ensuring the right of the tribal population to use the forests or the right of displaced people to settlement and compensation. Think of other issues that social movements have taken up in the past and present. While social movements seek to bring in social change, counter movements sometimes arise in defence of status quo. There are many instances of such counter movements. When Raja Rammohun Roy campaigned against sati and formed the Brahmo Samaj, defenders of sati formed Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British not to legislate against sati. When reformers demanded education for girls, many protested that this would be disastrous for society. When reformers campaigned for widow remarriage, they were socially boycotted. When the so called ‘lower caste’ children enrolled in schools, some so called ‘upper caste’ children were withdrawn from the schools by their families. Peasant movements have often been brutally suppressed. More recently the social movements of erstwhile excluded groups like the Dalits have often invoked retaliatory action. Likewise proposals for extending reservation in educational institutions have led to counter movements opposing them. Social movements cannot change society easily. Since it goes against both entrenched interests and values, there is bound to be opposition and resistance. But over a period changes do take place.

Question

1. Imagine a society where there has been no social movement. Discuss. You can also describe how you imagine such a society to be.
2. Write short notes on:

  •  Women’s Movement
  •  Tribal Movements

3. In India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the old and new social movements. Discuss.
4. Enviornmental movements often also contain economic and identity issues. Discuss.
5. Distinguish between peasent and New Farmenr’s movements.


Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements

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Indian Society Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Introducing Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Demographic Structure of The Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 3 Social Institutions Continuity and Change
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Indian Society Chapter 4 The Market as a Social Institution
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Indian Society Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
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Indian Society Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
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Indian Society Chapter 7 Suggestions for Project Work
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Indian Society Glossary
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 1 Structural Change
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 2 Cultural Change
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 4 Change and Development in Rural Society
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Industrial Scoiety
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
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Social Change and Development in India Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Mass Media and Communications
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 8 Social Movements
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements

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